Towards Hemostatic Resuscitation The Changing Understanding of Acute Traumatic Biology, Massive Bleeding, and Damage-Control Resuscitation
ABSTRACT During the past decade there has been a profound change in the understanding of postinjury coagulation. Concurrently, new data suggest that a resuscitative strategy to minimize large volumes of crystalloid while recreating whole is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality. This article outlines the history of resuscitation and transfusion practices in trauma, the changing understanding of coagulation and inflammation, and clinical data driving changes in resuscitative conduct. Finally, the current state of the science suggests future basic science and clinical investigation that will drive changes in transfusion and resuscitation in severely injured military personnel and civilian patients.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion guidelines correctly promote a general restrictive transfusion approach for anemic hospitalized patients. Such recommendations have been derived from evaluation of specific patient populations, and it is important to recognize that engaging a strict guideline approach has the potential to incur harm if the clinician fails to provide a comprehensive review of the patient's physiological status in determining the benefit and risks of transfusion. We reviewed the data in support of a restrictive or a more liberal RBC transfusion practice, and examined the quality of the datasets and manner of their interpretation to provide better context by which a physician can make a sound decision regarding RBC transfusion therapy. Reviewed studies included PubMed-cited (1974 to 2013) prospective randomized clinical trials, prospective subset analyses of randomized studies, nonrandomized controlled trials, observational case series, consecutive and nonconsecutive case series, and review articles. Prospective randomized clinical trials were acknowledged and emphasized as the best-quality evidence. The results of the analysis support that restrictive RBC transfusion practices appear safe in the hospitalized populations studied, although patients with acute coronary syndromes, traumatic brain injury and patients at risk for brain or spinal cord ischemia were not well represented in the reviewed studies. The lack of quality data regarding the purported adverse effects of RBC transfusion at best suggests that restrictive strategies are no worse than liberal strategies under the studied protocol conditions, and RBC transfusion therapy in the majority of instances represents a marker for greater severity of illness. The conclusion is that in the majority of clinical settings a restrictive RBC transfusion strategy is cost-effective, reduces the risk of adverse events specific to transfusion, and introduces no harm. In anemic patients with ongoing hemorrhage, with risk of significant bleeding, or with concurrent ischemic brain, spinal cord, or myocardium, the optimal hemoglobin transfusion trigger remains unknown. Broad-based adherence to guideline approaches of therapy must respect the individual patient condition as interpreted by comprehensive clinical review.Critical care (London, England) 05/2015; 19(1):202. DOI:10.1186/s13054-015-0912-y
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hemostatic resuscitation might improve the survival of severely injured trauma patients. Our objective was to establish a simplified screening system for determining the necessity of massive transfusions (MT) at an early stage in trauma cases. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of trauma patients who had been transported to our institution between November 2011 and October 2013. Patients who were younger than 18 years of age or who were confirmed to have suffered a cardiac arrest at the scene or on arrival were excluded. MT were defined as transfusions involving the delivery of ≥10 units of red blood cell concentrate within the first 24 h after arrival. A total of 259 trauma patients were included in this study (males: 178, 69%). Their mean age was 49 ± 20, and their median injury severity score was 14.4. Thirty-three (13%) of the patients required MT. The presence of a shock index of ≥1, a base excess of ≤ -3 mmol/L, or a positive focused assessment of sonography for trauma (FAST) result was found to exhibit sensitivity and specificity values of 0.97 and 0.81, respectively, for predicting the necessity of MT. Furthermore, this method displayed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.934 (95% confidence interval, 0.891-0.978), which indicated that it was highly accurate. Our screening method based on the shock index, base excess, and FAST result is a simple and useful way of predicting the necessity of MT early after trauma.01/2014; 2(1):54. DOI:10.1186/s40560-014-0054-3
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) followed by a subsequent insult (“second hit”) often initiates an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response and multiple organ failure. We have previously demonstrated that valproic acid, a pan histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, could improve survival in a rodent “two-hit” model. In present study, our goal was to determine whether selective inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 with Tubstatin A (Tub-A) could prolong survival in a 2-hit model where HS was followed by sepsis from cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).Journal of Surgical Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2015.02.070 · 2.12 Impact Factor