Beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation: enhancement of Natural Killer cell activity and early inflammatory response (Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial).
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that Chlorella is a potent biological response modifier on immunity. However, there were no direct evidences for the effect of Chlorella supplementation on immune/inflammation response in healthy humans. Methods: This study was designed for an 8-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial: 5g of Chlorella (n=23) or Placebo (n=28) as form of tablets. Mainly, cytotoxic activities of Natural killer (NK) cells and serum concentrations of interferon-gamma, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-12 were measured. Results: After the 8-week, serum concentrations of interferon-gamma (p<0.05) and interleukin-1beta (p<0.001) significantly increased and that of interleukin-12 (p<0.1) tended to increase in the Chlorella group. The increments of these cytokines after the intervention were significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than those in the placebo group. In addition, NK cell activities (%) were significantly increased in Chlorella group, but not in Placebo group. The increments of NK cell activities (%) were also significantly bigger in the Chlorella group than the placebo group. Additionally, changed levels of NK cell activity were positively correlated with those of serum interleukin-1beta (r=0.280, p=0.047) and interferon-gamma (r=0.271, p<0.005). Signficantly positive correlations were also observed among the changed levels of serum cytokines; between interferon-gamma and interleukin-1beta (r=0.448, p<0.001), between interleukin-12 and interleukin-1beta (r=0.416, p=0.003) and between interleukin-12 and interferon-gamma (r=0.570, p<001). Conclusion: These results may suggest a beneficial immunostimulatory effect of short-term Chlorella supplementation which enhances the NK cell activity and produces interferon-gamma and interleukin-12 as well as interleukin-1beta, the Th-1 cell-induced cytokines in healthy people.
Article: Bioflavonoid quercetin inhibits interleukin-1-induced transcriptional expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in glomerular cells via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Flavonoids are semiessential food components that possess anti-inflammatory properties. This report describes a novel potential of bioflavonoid quercetin as an inhibitor of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in glomerular cells. Cultured mesangial cells as well as isolated glomeruli expressed MCP-1 mRNA in response to interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). Quercetin dramatically inhibited the cytokine-triggered MCP-1 expression. To explore the mechanisms involved, effects of quercetin on the putative transcriptional activators of MCP-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), were examined. Exposure of the cells to IL-1beta caused activation of NF-kappaB without significant upregulation of AP-1 activity. NF-kappaB inhibitor MG132 diminished the IL-1-induced expression of MCP-1 in mesangial cells and isolated glomeruli, whereas c-Jun/AP-1 inhibitor curcumin did not affect this process. Consistently, NF-kappaB-inactive mesangial cells expressing a super-repressor mutant of IkappaBalpha showed blunted expression of MCP-1 by IL-1beta. In contrast, AP-1-inactive mesangial cells expressing a dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun exhibited the same level of MCP-1 mRNA as that in control cells. These results suggest that: (1) quercetin has the ability to attenuate activation of NF-kappaB; and (2) it inhibits IL-1-triggered MCP-1 expression via suppression of NF-kappaB, but not AP-1, in glomerular cells.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12/1999; 10(11):2290-6. · 9.66 Impact Factor
Article: Oral administration of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris reduces IgE production against milk casein in mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CVE) is a biological response modifier (BRM) which enhances resistance to Listeria monocytogenes through augmentation of helper T cell type 1 (Thl) responses producing gamma-interferon (gammaIFN). We show here that oral administration of CVE in mice suppressed the production of immunoglobulin (Ig)E against casein antigen accompanied by increased gammaIFN and IL-12 mRNA expression. Oral administration of CVE enhanced Thl response to casein in the spleen of casein immunized mice. CVE may be useful for prevention of allergic diseases with a predominant Th2 response.International Journal of Immunopharmacology 06/1999; 21(5):311-23.
Article: Augmentation of host defense by a unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Protection against Escherichia coli inoculated intraperitoneally into mice was enhanced by intraperitoneal, intravenous, or subcutaneous administration of a water-soluble, high-molecular-weight fraction extracted from a dialyzed hot-water extract from a strain of Chlorella vulgaris (CVE-A). The enhancing effect was detected with doses over 2.0 mg/kg and when doses were administered 1, 4, or 7 days before the infection. The elimination of bacteria from the spleen of CVE-A-treated mice was increased, and this enhanced elimination may have been related to the acceleration of superoxide generation and chemokinesis in polymorphonuclear leucocytes by CVE-A treatment. A cyclophosphamide-induced decrease in protection against E. coli could be prevented by subcutaneous administration of CVE-A.Infection and Immunity 09/1986; 53(2):267-71. · 4.16 Impact Factor