Anti-inflammatory effects of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids.

Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Charterhouse Square, London EC1M 6BQ, UK.
International journal of vascular medicine 01/2012; 2012:605101. DOI: 10.1155/2012/605101
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are generated by the activity of both selective and also more general cytochrome p450 (CYP) enzymes on arachidonic acid and inactivated largely by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), which converts them to their corresponding dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs). EETs have been shown to have a diverse range of effects on the vasculature including relaxation of vascular tone, cellular proliferation, and angiogenesis as well as the migration of smooth muscle cells. This paper will highlight the growing evidence that EETs also mediate a number of anti-inflammatory effects in the cardiovascular system. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated that potentiation of EET activity using different methods can inhibit inflammatory gene expression and signalling pathways in endothelial cells and monocytes and in models of cardiovascular diseases. The mechanisms by which EETs mediate their effects are largely unknown but may include direct binding to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), or transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which initiate anti-inflammatory signalling cascades.

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    ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) is associated with atherosclerotic events through the modulation of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism and activation of inflammatory signaling. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) mitigate inflammation through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In this study, we explored the effects and mechanisms of exogenous EETs on the ox-LDL-induced inflammation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), which were cultured from rat pulmonary arteries. We determined that pre-treatment with 11,12-EET or 14,15-EET attenuated the ox-LDL-induced expression and release of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the ox-LDL-induced expression of CYP2J4 was upregulated by 11,12-EET and 14,15-EET (1μM). Furthermore, the endothelial receptor of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LOX-1) was downregulated in PAECs treated with EETs. The inflammatory responses evoked by ox-LDL (100μg/mL) were blocked by pharmacological inhibitors of Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (U0126), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and NF-κB (PDTC). In addition, we confirmed that 11,12-EET suppresses phosphorylation of p38, degradation of IκBα, and activation of NF-κB (p65), whereas 14,15-EET can significantly suppress the phosphorylation of p38 and Erk1/2. Our results indicate that EETs exert beneficial effects on ox-LDL-induced inflammation primarily through the inhibition of LOX-1 receptor upregulation, MAPK phosphorylation, and NF-κB activation and through the upregulation of CYP2J4 expression. This study helps focus the current understanding of the contribution of EETs to the regulation of the inflammation of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the therapeutic potential of targeting the EET pathway in pulmonary vascular disease will be highlighted.
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