Prevalence of human papillomavirus in university young women.
ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent female cancer worldwide. The majority of cases appear between the age of 30 and 50. Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a central role in cervical cancer with 99.7% of HPV DNA identified in invasive cervical carcinomas. The prevalence of the HPV infection varies substantially among countries and according to age and lifestyle. HPV is a common sexually transmitted infection among males and females with a 70% higher incidence in sexually active females. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus in young university women by analyzing the correlation between Papanicolaou (PAP)-stained cervical tests and HPV detection by genotyping, as well as other risk factors. A total of 200 women aged between 18 and 25 years were enrolled in this study, which took place between September 2008 and May 2009 at the Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile. Results of the PAP smears showed that 97.5% of cells had normal characteristics, although an inflammatory pattern was noted. The prevalence of generic HPV infection was 3.5% when testing for HPV DNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. An analysis of the genotype of infected female individuals indicated that high-risk HPV types, such as HPV 16 and 31 were present in 42.84 and 14.29% of females, respectively, and low-risk types such as HPV 6, in 14.29%. Only one sample with differentiated non-HPV (14.29%) was found. A 95% correlation between PAP-stained cervical tests and the method of testing for HPV was observed. Using the PCR method, it was found that of the 195 negative PAP smears, 5 were positive for HPV and two of the samples that were positive for ASC-US were also positive. A significantly increased (P<0.05) HPV infection risk was observed in the 18-21 age group with a higher prevalence (71.40%) when compared to the 22-25 age group (28.6%). A significant (P<0.042) difference was found between smoking and HPV infection. In conclusion, a significant (P<0.05) correlation was found between PAP and PCR methods for HPV testing in young university women. A significant correlation between smoking and HPV was detected, whereas no difference was noted with other parameters.
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ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is widely accepted as a causative agent of cervical cancer. The distribution and prevalence of HPV types depend on geographic region and demographic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the presence of various HPV types and the outcome of cytological examination. Cervical smears were obtained from 125 women from southern Poland: low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) - 44, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) - 12, cervical carcinoma - 27 and 42 women without abnormality in cytology as a control group. DNA was extracted from the smears and broad-spectrum HPV DNA amplification and genotyping was performed with the SPF 10 primer set and reverse hybridisation line probe assay (INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping, Innogenetics). HPV DNA was detected in approximately 72% cases, more frequently in women with squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical carcinoma than in the control group (P < 0.0005). The most frequent type found was HPV 16 (37%), followed by HPV 51 (28%) and HPV 52 (17%). A single HPV type was detected in 51% positive cases, more frequently in cervical cancer specimens. Multiple HPV infection was dominant in women with LSIL and normal cytology. Prevalence of HPV 16 increased with the severity of cervical smear abnormality. For women HPV 16 positive, the relative risk (odds ratio) of the occurrence of HSIL and cervical cancer versus LSIL was 14.4 (95% CI, 3.0-69.2; P=0.001) and 49.4 (95% CI, 6.5-372.8; P < 0.001), respectively. Genotyping of HPV will allow better classification of women with cervical abnormalities into different risk groups and could be useful in therapy.Acta biochimica Polonica 11/2008; 55(4):687-92. · 1.49 Impact Factor
Article: Asian-American variants of human papillomavirus 16 and risk for cervical cancer: a case-control study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) has a number of variants, each with a different geographic distribution and some that are associated more often with invasive neoplasias. We investigated whether the high incidence of cervical cancer in Mexico (50 cases per 100 000 women) may be associated with a high prevalence of oncogenic HPV16 variants. Cervical samples were collected from 181 case patients with cervical cancer and from 181 age-matched control subjects, all from Mexico City. HPV16 was detected with an E6/E7 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction, and variant HPV classes and subclasses were identified by sequencing regions of the E6 and L1/MY genes. Clinical data and data on tumor characteristics were also collected. All statistical tests were two-sided. HPV16 was detected in cervical scrapes from 50.8% (92 of 181) of case patients and from 11% (20 of 181) of control subjects. All HPV16-positive samples, except one, contained European (E) or Asian-American (AA) variants. AA and E variants were found statistically significantly more often in case patients (AA = 23.2% [42 of 181]; E = 27.1% [49 of 181]) than in control subjects (AA = 1.1% [two of 181]; E = 10% [18 of 181]) (P<.001 for case versus control subjects for either E or AA variants, chi2 test). However, the frequency of AA variants was 21 times higher in cancer patients than in control subjects, whereas that ratio for E variants was only 2.7 (P =.006, chi2 test). The odds ratio (OR) for cervical cancer associated with AA variants (OR = 27.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.4 to 113.7) was higher than that associated with E variants (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.9 to 6.0). AA-positive case patients (46.2 +/- 12.5 years [mean +/- standard deviation]) were 7.7 years younger than E-positive case patients (53.9 +/- 12.2 years) (P =.004, Student's t test). AA variants were associated with squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas, but E variants were associated with only squamous cell carcinomas (P =.014, Fisher's exact test). The high frequency of HPV16 AA variants, which appear to be more oncogenic than E variants, might contribute to the high incidence of cervical cancer in Mexico.JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute 09/2001; 93(17):1325-30. · 13.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and is the most common cancer among Mexican women, but no population-based studies have reported the prevalence and determinants of HPV infection in Mexico. A population-based study was carried out between 1996 and 1999, based on an age-stratified random sample of 1,340 women with normal cytologic diagnoses from 33 municipalities of Morelos State, Mexico. The prevalence of cervical HPV DNA was determined by reverse line blot strip assay to detect 17 cancer-associated and 10 non-cancer-associated HPV types. Two peaks of HPV DNA prevalence were observed. A first peak of 16.7% was observed in the age group under 25 years. HPV DNA prevalence declined to 3.7% in the age group 35-44 years, then increased progressively to 23% among women 65 years and older. Cancer-associated HPV types were the most common in all age groups; non-cancer-associated HPV types were rare in the young and became more common linearly with age. Twenty-four types of HPV were detected; HPV 16, HPV 53, HPV 31 and HPV 18 were the most common, but none was present in more than 1.7% of subjects. The main determinant of infection with both cancer-associated and non-cancer-associated HPV types was the number of sexual partners in all age groups. Less-educated women were at an increased risk of infection with cancer-associated but not with non-cancer-associated HPV types; low socioeconomic status was associated with detection of non-cancer-associated HPV types. Among young women an increasing number of pregnancies was associated with lower HPV detection and among older women low socioeconomic status was related to increased HPV detection, particularly for the age group 35-54 years. Among women with cancer-associated HPV types, there was a higher intensity of polymerase chain reaction signal in younger than in older age groups (p < 0.001). We present additional evidence for the sexually transmitted nature of HPV infection, regardless of age group and HPV type. We confirm previous findings of a second peak of high-risk HPV infections in postmenopausal women, in this case with a clear predominance of cancer-associated HPV types. In populations with this pattern, which can be related to reactivation of latent HPV infections or high previous exposure in older women, screening with HPV testing can have a reduced specificity among older women if proper cut-off points for HPV positivity are not used. Longitudinal studies of immune responses to HPV infection in different age groups are warranted.International Journal of Cancer 02/2001; 91(3):412-20. · 5.44 Impact Factor