Genotype-phenotype analysis of 4q deletion syndrome: Proposal of a critical region
ABSTRACT Chromosome 4q deletion syndrome (4q- syndrome) is a rare condition, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 100,000. Although variable, the clinical spectrum commonly includes craniofacial, developmental, digital, skeletal, and cardiac involvement. Data on the genotype-phenotype correlation within the 4q arm are limited. We present detailed clinical and genetic information by array CGH on 20 patients with 4q deletions. We identified a patient who has a ∼465 kb deletion (186,770,069-187,234,800, hg18 coordinates) in 4q35.1 with all clinical features for 4q deletion syndrome except for developmental delay, suggesting that this is a critical region for this condition and a specific gene responsible for orofacial clefts and congenital heart defects resides in this region. Since the patients with terminal deletions all had cleft palate, our results provide further evidence that a gene associated with clefts is located on the terminal segment of 4q. By comparing and contrasting our patients' genetic information and clinical features, we found significant genotype-phenotype correlations at a single gene level linking specific phenotypes to individual genes. Based on these data, we constructed a hypothetical partial phenotype-genotype map for chromosome 4q which includes BMP3, SEC31A, MAPK10, SPARCL1, DMP1, IBSP, PKD2, GRID2, PITX2, NEUROG2, ANK2, FGF2, HAND2, and DUX4 genes.
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ABSTRACT: Small deletions on the long arm of distal chromosome 4 do not appear to result in gross congenital malformations, with the most frequently reported clinical findings including mild to moderate intellectual disability, learning disabilities and minor dysmorphic features. Here we report on a cytogenetically detectable familial interstitial chromosome 4 long arm deletion with no discernible phenotypic effects in a mother and her two daughters. The karyotypes of the mother and her two daughters were: 46,XX,del(4)(q35.1q35.2). Based on the results of FISH analyses using whole chromosome specific and subtelomeric probes, the karyotype was designated as: 46,XX,del(4)(q35.1q35.2). ish del(4)(q35-qter)(WCP4+, 36P21+, dJ963K6-). Array-CGH analysis showed an interstitial deletion encompassing 5.75 Mb in the 4q35.1-q35.2 genomic region (chr4:184,717,878-190,469,337; hg19). This is the first report on a cytogenetically detectable familial interstitial chromosome 4 long arm deletion in which there are no discernible phenotypic effects. Both our findings and a review of the literature suggest that more detailed molecular analyses are needed in cases with distal chromosome 4 long arm deletions especially those with breakpoints in the 4q35 region to establish a more precise genotype-phenotype correlation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.37097 · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ObjectiveRare variants in certain transcription factors involved in cardiac development cause Mendelian forms of congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study was to systematically assess the frequency of rare transcription factor variants in sporadic patients with the cardiac outflow tract malformation tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).Methods and ResultsWe sequenced the coding, 5′UTR, and 3′UTR regions of twelve transcription factor genes implicated in cardiac outflow tract development (NKX2.5, GATA4, ISL1, TBX20, MEF2C, BOP/SMYD1, HAND2, FOXC1, FOXC2, FOXH, FOXA2 and TBX1) in 93 non-syndromic, non-Mendelian TOF cases. We also analysed Illumina Human 660W-Quad SNP Array data for copy number variants in these genes; none were detected. Four of the rare variants detected have previously been shown to affect transactivation in in vitro reporter assays: FOXC1 p.P297S, FOXC2 p.Q444R, FOXH1 p.S113T and TBX1 p.P43_G61del PPPPRYDPCAAAAPGAPGP. Two further rare variants, HAND2 p.A25_A26insAA and FOXC1 p.G378_G380delGGG, A488_491delAAAA, affected transactivation in in vitro reporter assays. Each of these six functionally significant variants was present in a single patient in the heterozygous state; each of the four for which parental samples were available were maternally inherited. Thus in the 93 TOF cases we identified six functionally significant mutations in the secondary heart field transcriptional network.SignificanceThis study indicates that rare genetic variants in the secondary heart field transcriptional network with functional effects on protein function occur in 3–13% of patients with TOF. This is the first report of a functionally significant HAND2 mutation in a patient with congenital heart disease.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e95453. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095453 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital heart defects (CHD), as the most common congenital anomaly, have been reported to be frequently associated with pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs). Currently, patients with CHD are routinely offered chromosomal microarray (CMA) testing, but the diagnostic yield of CMA on CHD patients has not been extensively evaluated based on a large patient cohort. In this study, we retrospectively assessed the detected CNVs in a total of 514 CHD cases (a 422-case clinical cohort from Boston Children's Hospital (BCH) and a 92-case research cohort from Shanghai Children's Medical Center (SCMC)) and conducted a genotype-phenotype analysis. Furthermore, genes encompassed in pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs were prioritized by integrating several tools and public data sources for novel CHD candidate gene identification. Based on the BCH cohort, the overall diagnostic yield of CMA testing for CHD patients was 12.8(pathogenic CNVs)-18.5% (pathogenic and likely pathogenic CNVs). The diagnostic yield of CMA for syndromic CHD was 14.1-20.6% (excluding aneuploidy cases), whereas the diagnostic yield for isolated CHD was 4.3-9.3%. Four recurrent genomic loci (4q terminal region, 15q11.2, 16p12.2 and Yp11.2) were more significantly enriched in cases than in controls. These regions are considered as novel CHD loci. We further identified 20 genes as the most likely novel CHD candidate genes through gene prioritization analysis. The high clinical diagnostic yield of CMA in this study provides supportive evidence for CMA as the first-line genetic diagnostic tool for CHD patients. The CNVs detected in our study suggest a number of CHD candidate genes that warrant further investigation.