Article

Genotype-phenotype analysis of 4q deletion syndrome: Proposal of a critical region

Institute of Human Genetics, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A (Impact Factor: 2.05). 09/2012; 158A(9):2139-51. DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.35502
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Chromosome 4q deletion syndrome (4q- syndrome) is a rare condition, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 100,000. Although variable, the clinical spectrum commonly includes craniofacial, developmental, digital, skeletal, and cardiac involvement. Data on the genotype-phenotype correlation within the 4q arm are limited. We present detailed clinical and genetic information by array CGH on 20 patients with 4q deletions. We identified a patient who has a ∼465 kb deletion (186,770,069-187,234,800, hg18 coordinates) in 4q35.1 with all clinical features for 4q deletion syndrome except for developmental delay, suggesting that this is a critical region for this condition and a specific gene responsible for orofacial clefts and congenital heart defects resides in this region. Since the patients with terminal deletions all had cleft palate, our results provide further evidence that a gene associated with clefts is located on the terminal segment of 4q. By comparing and contrasting our patients' genetic information and clinical features, we found significant genotype-phenotype correlations at a single gene level linking specific phenotypes to individual genes. Based on these data, we constructed a hypothetical partial phenotype-genotype map for chromosome 4q which includes BMP3, SEC31A, MAPK10, SPARCL1, DMP1, IBSP, PKD2, GRID2, PITX2, NEUROG2, ANK2, FGF2, HAND2, and DUX4 genes.

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