Prevalence, incidence, and demographics of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis from 2000 to 2004 among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population.

Harvard School of Public Health and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Arthritis & Rheumatology (Impact Factor: 7.48). 08/2012; 64(8):2669-76. DOI: 10.1002/art.34472
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To investigate the nationwide prevalence, incidence, and sociodemographics of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis among children in the US Medicaid beneficiary population.
Children ages 3 years to <18 years with a diagnosis of SLE (defined as ≥3 claims with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] code of 710.0 for SLE, each >30 days apart) were identified from the US Medicaid Analytic eXtract database from 2000 to 2004. This database contains all inpatient and outpatient Medicaid claims for 47 US states and the District of Columbia. Lupus nephritis was identified from ≥2 ICD-9 billing codes for glomerulonephritis, proteinuria, or renal failure, each recorded >30 days apart. The prevalence and incidence of SLE and lupus nephritis were calculated among Medicaid-enrolled children overall and within sociodemographic groups.
Of the 30,420,597 Medicaid-enrolled children during these years, 2,959 were identified as having SLE. The prevalence of SLE was 9.73 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 9.38-10.08) per 100,000 Medicaid-enrolled children. Among the children with SLE, 84% were female, 40% were African American, 25% were Hispanic, 21% were White, and 42% resided in the South region of the US. Moreover, of the children with SLE, 1,106 (37%) had lupus nephritis, representing a prevalence of 3.64 (95% CI 3.43-3.86) per 100,000 children. The average annual incidence of SLE was 2.22 cases (95% CI 2.05-2.40) and that of lupus nephritis was 0.72 cases (95% CI 0.63-0.83) per 100,000 Medicaid enrollees per year. The prevalence and incidence rates of SLE and lupus nephritis increased with age, were higher in girls than in boys, and were higher in all non-White racial/ethnic groups.
In the current study, the prevalence and incidence rates of SLE among Medicaid-enrolled children in the US are high compared to studies in other populations. In addition, these data represent the first population-based estimates of the prevalence and incidence of lupus nephritis in the US to date.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We performed a nationwide study to determine the distributions of the signs and clinical markers of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and identify any patterns in their distributions to allow patient subclassification. We obtained 256,999 patient-year records describing the disease status of SLE patients from 2003 to 2010. Of these, 14,779 involved patients diagnosed within the last year, and 242,220 involved patients being followed up. Along with basic descriptive statistics, we analyzed the effects of sex, age and disease duration on the frequencies of signs in the first year and follow-up years. The patients and major signs were clustered using the Ward method. The female patients were younger at onset. Renal involvement and discoid eczema were more frequent in males, whereas arthritis, photosensitivity and cytopenia were less. Autoantibody production and malar rash were positively associated with young age, and serositis and arthritis were negatively associated. Photosensitivity was positively associated with a long disease duration, and autoantibody production, serositis and cytopenia were negatively associated. The SLE patients were clustered into subgroups, as were the major signs. We identified differences in SLE clinical features according to sex, age and disease duration. Subgroups of SLE patients and the major signs of SLE exist.
    Lupus 08/2014; · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We describe a case of a post vaccine immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in an infant with compound heterozygous mutations of C2 complement component gene, which is the first such case in the literature. The three and a half months old boy presented with clinical and laboratory signs of nephritic syndrome and was successfully treated with methylprednisolone. An explanation of such a clinical picture may lie in the interaction between C2 deficiency and vaccination.
    Croatian Medical Journal 12/2013; 54(6):569-73. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To date, only a small number of studies have examined the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) on a nation-wide basis. We used French national administrative databases to analyze the nation-wide prevalence and incidence rates of SLE within the largest French health insurance scheme, which covers 86% of the population (almost 58,200,000 individuals). Patients with SLE were identified if they had full coverage for a chronic disease with a code (ICD-10th M32) in the health insurance information system, or if they had a SLE code in the hospital discharge database as a primary or secondary diagnosis in 2010. We defined incident cases as patients who had a new long-term disease diagnosis of SLE in 2010. Overall, 27,369 individuals were identified as having SLE, 88% were female. The crude 2010 prevalence of identified SLE was 47.0/100,000, and the WHO age-standardized rate 40.8/100,000. The crude 2010 annual incidence of SLE was 3.32 cases per 100,000 with peaks in females aged 30-39yo (9.11/100,000) and in males aged 50-59yo (1.78/100,000). Major differences in regional age-standardized prevalence rates were observed, with highest rates in the Caribbean overseas areas (up to 126.7/100,000), and lowest rates in north-western metropolitan territories (down to 29.6/100,000). This is the largest nation-wide population-based study of SLE patients to date, based on more than 58 million beneficiaries of the French health insurance system. These data and subsequent analyses provide guidance to both clinicians and policymakers for improving care of SLE.
    Autoimmunity Reviews 11/2014; · 7.10 Impact Factor