Characterization of cellular protective effects of ATP13A2/PARK9 expression and alterations resulting from pathogenic mutants.
ABSTRACT Mutations in ATP13A2, which encodes a lysosomal P-type ATPase of unknown function, cause an autosomal recessive parkinsonian syndrome. With mammalian cells, we show that ATP13A2 expression protects against manganese and nickel toxicity, in addition to proteasomal, mitochondrial, and oxidative stress. Consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance of gene defects, disease-causing mutations F182L and G504R are prone to misfolding and do not protect against manganese and nickel toxicity because they are unstable as a result of degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-proteasome system. The protective effects of ATP13A2 expression are not due to inhibition of apoptotic pathways or a reduction in typical stress pathways, insofar as these pathways are still activated in challenged ATP13A2-expressing cells; however, these cells display a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of oxidized and damaged proteins. These data indicate that, contrary to a previous suggestion, ATP13A2 is unlikely to convey cellular resilience simply by acting as a lysosomal manganese transporter. Consistent with the recent identification of an ATP13A2 recessive mutation in Tibetan terriers that develop neurodegeneration with neuronal ceroid lipofucinoses, our data suggest that ATP13A2 may function to import a cofactor required for the function of a lysosome enzyme(s). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex disorder with many different causes, yet they may intersect in common pathways, raising the possibility that neuroprotective agents may have broad applicability in the treatment of PD. Current evidence suggests that mitochondrial complex I inhibition may be the central cause of sporadic PD and that derangements in complex I cause alpha-synuclein aggregation, which contributes to the demise of dopamine neurons. Accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein may further contribute to the death of dopamine neurons through impairments in protein handling and detoxification. Dysfunction of parkin (a ubiquitin E3 ligase) and DJ-1 could contribute to these deficits. Strategies aimed at restoring complex I activity, reducing oxidative stress and alpha-synuclein aggregation, and enhancing protein degradation may hold particular promise as powerful neuroprotective agents in the treatment of PD.Science 11/2003; 302(5646):819-22. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The autophagy-lysosomal pathway plays an important role in the clearance of long-lived proteins and dysfunctional organelles. Lysosomal dysfunction has been implicated in several neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies that are characterized by accumulations of α-synuclein in Lewy bodies. Recent identification of mutations in genes linked to lysosomal function and neurodegeneration has offered a unique opportunity to directly examine the role of lysosomes in disease pathogenesis. Mutations in lysosomal membrane protein ATP13A2 (PARK9) cause familial Kufor-Rakeb syndrome characterized by early-onset parkinsonism, pyramidal degeneration and dementia. While previous data suggested a role of ATP13A2 in α-synuclein misfolding and toxicity, the mechanistic link has not been established. Here we report that loss of ATP13A2 in human fibroblasts from patients with Kufor-Rakeb syndrome or in mouse primary neurons leads to impaired lysosomal degradation capacity. This lysosomal dysfunction results in accumulation of α-synuclein and toxicity in primary cortical neurons. Importantly, silencing of endogenous α-synuclein attenuated the toxicity in ATP13A2-depleted neurons, suggesting that loss of ATP13A2 mediates neurotoxicity at least in part via the accumulation of α-synuclein. Our findings implicate lysosomal dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Kufor-Rakeb syndrome and suggest that upregulation of lysosomal function and downregulation of α-synuclein represent important therapeutic strategies for this disorder.Journal of Neuroscience 03/2012; 32(12):4240-6. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: P(5) ATPases (ATP13A1 through ATP13A5) are found in all eukaryotes. They are currently poorly characterized and have unknown substrate specificity. Recent evidence has linked two P(5) ATPases to diseases of the nervous system, suggesting possible importance of these proteins within the nervous system. In this study we determined the relative expression of mouse P5 ATPases in development using quantitative real time PCR. We have shown that ATP13A1 and ATP13A2 were both expressed similarly during development, with the highest expression levels at the peak of neurogenesis. ATP13A3 was expressed highly during organogenesis with one of its isoforms playing a more predominant role during the period of neuronal development. ATP13A5 was expressed most highly in the adult mouse brain. We also assessed the expression of these genes in various regions of the adult mouse brain. ATP13A1 to ATP13A4 were expressed differentially in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and cerebellum while levels of ATP13A5 were fairly constant between these brain regions. Moreover, we demonstrated expression of the ATP13A4 protein in the corresponding brain regions using immunohistochemistry. In summary, this study furthers our knowledge of P(5)-type ATPases and their potentially important role in the nervous system.Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters 03/2012; 17(1):153-70. · 1.95 Impact Factor