Characterization of cellular protective effects of ATP13A2/PARK9 expression and alterations resulting from pathogenic mutants

Department of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Journal of Neuroscience Research (Impact Factor: 2.73). 12/2012; 90(12):2306-16. DOI: 10.1002/jnr.23112
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mutations in ATP13A2, which encodes a lysosomal P-type ATPase of unknown function, cause an autosomal recessive parkinsonian syndrome. With mammalian cells, we show that ATP13A2 expression protects against manganese and nickel toxicity, in addition to proteasomal, mitochondrial, and oxidative stress. Consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance of gene defects, disease-causing mutations F182L and G504R are prone to misfolding and do not protect against manganese and nickel toxicity because they are unstable as a result of degradation via the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD)-proteasome system. The protective effects of ATP13A2 expression are not due to inhibition of apoptotic pathways or a reduction in typical stress pathways, insofar as these pathways are still activated in challenged ATP13A2-expressing cells; however, these cells display a dramatic reduction in the accumulation of oxidized and damaged proteins. These data indicate that, contrary to a previous suggestion, ATP13A2 is unlikely to convey cellular resilience simply by acting as a lysosomal manganese transporter. Consistent with the recent identification of an ATP13A2 recessive mutation in Tibetan terriers that develop neurodegeneration with neuronal ceroid lipofucinoses, our data suggest that ATP13A2 may function to import a cofactor required for the function of a lysosome enzyme(s). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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    • "In mammalian cell systems , a link between ATP13A2 and Mn 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , or Ni 2+ homeostasis has been reported. A protective effect of ATP13A2 overexpression toward Ni 2+ and Mn 2+ in mammalian NLF cells was described (Covy et al., 2012), whereas the knockdown of ATP13A2 increases the sensitivity of SHSY5Y cells toward Zn 2+ , but strangely not Mn 2+ . This challenges the view that ATP13A2 would be a Mn 2+ transporter. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in ATP13A2 lead to Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, a parkinsonism with dementia. ATP13A2 belongs to the P-type transport ATPases, a large family of primary active transporters that exert vital cellular functions. However, the cellular function and transported substrate of ATP13A2 remain unknown. To discuss the role of ATP13A2 in neurodegeneration, we first provide a short description of the architecture and transport mechanism of P-type transport ATPases. Then, we briefly highlight key P-type ATPases involved in neuronal disorders such as the copper transporters ATP7A (Menkes disease), ATP7B (Wilson disease), the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases ATP1A2 (familial hemiplegic migraine) and ATP1A3 (rapid-onset dystonia parkinsonism). Finally, we review the recent literature of ATP13A2 and discuss ATP13A2's putative cellular function in the light of what is known concerning the functions of other, better-studied P-type ATPases. We critically review the available data concerning the role of ATP13A2 in heavy metal transport and propose a possible alternative hypothesis that ATP13A2 might be a flippase. As a flippase, ATP13A2 may transport an organic molecule, such as a lipid or a peptide, from one membrane leaflet to the other. A flippase might control local lipid dynamics during vesicle formation and membrane fusion events.
    Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience 05/2014; 7:48. DOI:10.3389/fnmol.2014.00048 · 4.08 Impact Factor
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    • "The Scientific World Journal in divalent cations transportation, we cannot exclude that copper may be one of the metals carried by this protein. On the other hand, Ni(II) was also tested because it is implied in a number of pathologies, including allergies and cancer [9– 11], and causes noxious effects on different other processes [12] [13], but as a divalent cation, it may be too transported by the same ATPase, noting that recently Park9 protein was shown to exert protection properties against nickel toxicity [14] [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: P1D2E3K4H5E6L7 (PK9-H), a fragment of Ypk9, the yeast homologue of the human Park9 protein, was studied for its coordination abilities towards Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions through mono- and bi-dimensional NMR techniques. Both proteins are involved in the transportation of metal ions, including manganese and nickel, from the cytosol to the lysosomal lumen. Ypk9 showed manganese detoxification role, preventing a Mn-induced Parkinsonism (PD) besides mutations in Park9, linked to a juvenile form of the disease. Here, we tested PK9-H with Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions, the former because it is an essential element ubiquitous in the human body, so its trafficking should be strictly regulated and one cannot exclude that Ypk9 may play a role in it, and the latter because, besides being a toxic element for many organisms and involved in different pathologies and inflammation states, it seems that the protein confers protection against it. NMR experiments showed that both cations can bind PK9-H in an effective way, leading to complexes whose coordination mode depends on the pH of the solution. NMR data have been used to build a model for the structure of the major Cu(II) and Ni(II) complexes. Structural changes in the conformation of the peptide with organized side chain orientation promoted by nickel coordination were detected.
    The Scientific World Journal 03/2014; 2014:656201. DOI:10.1155/2014/656201 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations in ATP13A2 (PARK9), encoding a lysosomal P-type ATPase, are associated with both Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL). KRS has recently been classified as a rare genetic form of Parkinson's disease (PD) while NCL is a lysosomal storage disorder. Although the transport activity of ATP13A2 has not been defined, in vitro studies show that its loss compromises lysosomal function, which in turn is thought to cause neuronal degeneration. To understand the role of ATP13A2 dysfunction in disease, we disrupted its gene in mice. Atp13a2(-/-) and Atp13a2(+/+) mice were tested behaviorally to assess sensorimotor and cognitive function at multiple ages. In the brain, lipofuscin accumulation, α-synuclein aggregation, and dopaminergic pathology were measured. Behaviorally, Atp13a2(-/-) mice displayed late-onset sensorimotor deficits. Accelerated deposition of autofluorescent storage material (lipofuscin) was observed in the cerebellum and in neurons of the hippocampus and cortex of Atp13a2(-/-) mice. Immunoblot analysis showed increased insoluble α-synuclein in the hippocampus, but not in cortex or cerebellum. There was no change in the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra or in striatal dopamine levels in aged Atp13a2(-/-) mice. These results show that loss of Atp13a2 causes sensorimotor impairments, α-synuclein accumulation as occurs in PD and related synucleinopathies, and accumulation of lipofuscin deposits characteristic of NCL, thus providing the first direct demonstration that null mutations in Atp13a2 can cause pathological features of both diseases in the same organism.
    Human Molecular Genetics 02/2013; 22(10). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddt057 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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