Intraoperative imprint cytology and frozen section pathology for margin assessment in breast conservation surgery: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT Achieving negative surgical margins is critical to minimizing the risk of tumor recurrence in patients undergoing breast conservation surgery (BCS) for a breast malignancy. Our objective was to perform a systematic review comparing reexcision rates, sensitivity and specificity of the intraoperative use of the margin assessment techniques of imprint cytology (IC) and frozen section analysis (FSA), against permanent histopathologic section (PS).
The databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library and CINAHL Plus were searched for literature published from 1997 to 2011. Original investigations of patients who underwent BCS for breast cancer that evaluated margin assessment with PS and/or IC or FSA were included. Of 182 titles identified, 41 patient cohorts from 37 articles met inclusion criteria: PS (n = 19), IC (n = 7) and FSA (n = 15). Studies were summarized qualitatively using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist for cohort studies and the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) numerical scale for diagnostic studies.
The final reexcision rates after primary BCS were 35 % for PS, 11 % for IC (p = 0.001 vs. PS) and 10 % for FSA (p < 0.0001 vs. PS). For IC, reexcision rates decreased from 26 to 4 % (p = 0.18) and for FSA, reexcision rates decreased from 27 to 6 % (p < 0.0001). The pooled sensitivity of IC and FSA were 72 and 83 %. The pooled specificity of IC and FSA were 97 and 95 %. The average length of each technique was 13 min for IC and 27 min for FSA.
Patients who underwent BCS with intraoperative IC or FSA to assess negative surgical margins had significantly fewer secondary surgical procedures for excision of their breast malignancies.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Breast conservation treatment (BCT) for early-stage breast malignancies requires negative margins and good cosmesis. Reoperations may be needed to achieve negative margins, which can have an adverse impact on outcomes. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative frozen section analysis (IFSA) for margin assessment to reduce excision rates. Methods. All patients treated at the authors' private healthcare facility between 2009 and 2011 for breast cancer were included in the study. Those for whom BCT was intended underwent wide excision with IFSA. Six margins of the excised tissue, and the sentinel lymph node (SLN), where appropriate, were submitted for IFSA. Patient demographics, tumour characteristics, number of operations performed, and outcomes were analysed. Results. Of the 161 patients analysed, 138 (85.7%) had successful breast conservation. Four patients required a reoperation for incomplete surgical extirpation. One had a false negative SLN assessment on IFSA, and was returned to the operating room for an axillary dissection. Three patients required reoperations for inadvertently missed multicentric disease. None had false negative margin evaluation with IFSA necessitating reexcision. Conclusion. The use of IFSA allows low rates of reoperation with BCT. Further research is needed to establish consistency in low reexcision rates for cost-effectiveness and optimum resource allocation.International journal of breast cancer. 01/2014; 2014:715404.
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ABSTRACT: Since the emergence of breast conserving surgery (BCS) as an alternative to mastectomy in the 1980's, there has been little consensus on what constitutes acceptable margins for cases of invasive breast cancer, how best to evaluate margins in the operating room, or an understanding of the challenging process of margin assessment by pathologists. The program committee for the 15th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Breast Surgeons organized a plenary session to discuss the latest thinking and guidelines for these important issues. The SSO/ASTRO Consensus Guideline on Margins for BCS was an important focus of discussion. The SSO/ASTRO consensus panelists concluded that "no ink on tumor" is an adequate surgical margin for BCS in patients with invasive breast cancers. Intraoperative strategies to decrease the incidence of positive margins include intraoperative localization techniques (wire-localization, ultrasound, radioactive seed) and intraoperative margin assessments with specimen radiography, imprint cytology, and frozen section. Studies also demonstrate the positive effect of shave margins with or without intraoperative margin assessment. The College of American Pathologists protocols for breast specimen margin evaluation consider multiple variables that can impact the proper assessment of margins. These variables include: tissue fixation time, specimen orientation, cold ischemia time, leaking ink, specimen pancaking and others that surgeons need to be aware of. Determining when "enough is enough" should not only be the application of guidelines and national standards, but also a multidisciplinary discussion between breast cancer specialists for what is right for the individual patient's unique circumstances.Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2014; · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rapid intraoperative assessment of breast excision specimens is clinically important because up to 40% of patients undergoing breast-conserving cancer surgery require reexcision for positive or close margins. We demonstrate nonlinear microscopy (NLM) for the assessment of benign and malignant breast pathologies in fresh surgical specimens. A total of 179 specimens from 50 patients was imaged with NLM using rapid extrinsic nuclear staining with acridine orange and intrinsic second harmonic contrast generation from collagen. Imaging was performed on fresh, intact specimens without the need for fixation, embedding, and sectioning required for conventional histopathology. A visualization method to aid pathological interpretation is presented that maps NLM contrast from two-photon fluorescence and second harmonic signals to features closely resembling histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Mosaicking is used to overcome trade-offs between resolution and field of view, enabling imaging of subcellular features over square-centimeter specimens. After NLM examination, specimens were processed for standard paraffin-embedded histology using a protocol that coregistered histological sections to NLM images for paired assessment. Blinded NLM reading by three pathologists achieved 95.4% sensitivity and 93.3% specificity, compared with paraffin-embedded histology, for identifying invasive cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ versus benign breast tissue. Interobserver agreement was κ = 0.88 for NLM and κ = 0.89 for histology. These results show that NLM achieves high diagnostic accuracy, can be rapidly performed on unfixed specimens, and is a promising method for intraoperative margin assessment.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2014; · 9.81 Impact Factor