Impact of a graduated driver's license law on crashes involving young drivers in New York State
ABSTRACT Motor vehicle crashes constitute the greatest risk of injury for young adults. Graduated driver licensing (GDL) laws have been used to reduce the number of injuries and deaths in the young driver population. The New York State GDL law increased supervision of young driver and limited both time-of-day driven and number of passengers. This review examines the impact of a GDL enacted in New York in September 2003.
A retrospective review of New York State administrative databases from 2001 to 2009 was performed. During this period, a state-wide GDL requirement was implemented. Database review included all reported crashes to the New York State Department of Motor Vehicles by cause and driver age as well as motor fuel tax receipts by the New York State Comptroller's Office. Motor fuel tax receipts and consumption information were used as a proxy for overall miles driven.
Before 2003, drivers younger than 18 years were involved in 90 fatal crashes and 10,406 personal-injury (PI) crashes, constituting 4.49% and 3.38% of all fatal and PI crashes in New York State, respectively. By 2009, the number of fatal and PI crashes involving drivers who are younger than 18 years decreased to 44 (2.87%) and 5,246 (2.24%), respectively. Of note, the number of crashes experienced by the age group 18 years to 20 years during this period also declined, from 192 (9.59% of all fatal crashes) and 25,407 (8.24% of all PI crashes) to 135 (8.81%) and 18,114 (7.73%), respectively. Overall numbers of crashes reported remained relatively stable, between 549,000 in 2001 and 520,000 in 2009. Motor fuel use during this period also declined, but to a lesser degree ($552 million to $516 million or 6.6%).
The use of a GDL law in New York State has shown a large decrease in the number of fatalities and PI crashes involving young drivers. The delay in full driver privileges from the GDL did not result in an increase in fatal or PI crashes in the next older age group.
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ABSTRACT: The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) is providing a set of recommendations designed to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with distractions due to texting while driving. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 12% of all fatal crashes involving at least one distracted driver are estimated to be related to cell phone use while driving.1 Given the combination of visual, manual, and cognitive distractions posed by texting, this is an issue of major public health concern for communities. Therefore, the ACPM feels it is timely to discuss this issue and provide the following recommendations: 1Encourage state legislatures to develop and pass legislation banning texting while driving, while simultaneously implementing comprehensive and dedicated law enforcement strategies including penalties for these violations. Legislatures should establish a public awareness campaign regarding the dangers of texting while driving as an integral part of this legislation.2Promote further research into the design and evaluation of educational tools regarding texting while driving that can be incorporated into the issuance of driver’s licenses.3Provide primary care providers with the appropriate tools to educate patients of all ages.4Conduct additional studies investigating the risks associated with cell phone usage while driving, particularly texting, with motor vehicle crashes.American Journal of Preventive Medicine 09/2014; 47(5). DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2014.07.004 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using a panel study design, we examined the effects of different types of texting bans on motor vehicular fatalities. We used the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and a difference-in-differences approach to examine the incidence of fatal crashes in 2000 through 2010 in 48 US states with and without texting bans. Age cohorts were constructed to examine the impact of these bans on age-specific traffic fatalities. Primarily enforced laws banning all drivers from texting were significantly associated with a 3% reduction in traffic fatalities in all age groups, and those banning only young drivers from texting had the greatest impact on reducing deaths among those aged 15 to 21 years. Secondarily enforced restrictions were not associated with traffic fatality reductions in any of our analyses. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print June 12, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301894).American Journal of Public Health 06/2014; 104(8):e1-e8. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301894 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The accreditation of medical school programmes and the licensing and revalidation (or recertification) of doctors are thought to be important for ensuring the quality of health care. Whereas regulation of the medical profession is mandated in most jurisdictions around the world, the processes by which doctors become licensed, and maintain their licences, are quite varied. With respect to educational programmes, there has been a recent push to expand accreditation activities. Here too, the quality standards on which medical schools are judged can vary from one region to another. Given the perceived importance placed by the public and other stakeholders on oversight in medicine, both at the medical school and individual practitioner levels, it is important to document and discuss the regulatory practices employed throughout the world. This paper describes current issues in regulation, provides a brief summary of research in the field, and discusses the need for further investigations to better quantify relationships among regulatory activities and improved patient outcomes. Although there is some evidence to support the value of medical school accreditation, the direct impact of this quality assurance initiative on patient care is not yet known. For both licensure and revalidation, some investigations have linked specific processes to quality indicators; however, additional evaluations should be conducted across the medical education and practice continuum to better elucidate the relationships among regulatory activities and patient outcomes. More importantly, the value of accreditation, licensure and revalidation programmes around the world, including the effectiveness of specific protocols employed in these diverse systems, needs to be better quantified and disseminated.Medical Education 01/2014; 48(1):75-86. DOI:10.1111/medu.12286 · 3.62 Impact Factor