Causes of and Prevention Strategies for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a challenging malignancy of global importance. It is associated with a high rate of mortality and its prevalence in the United States and in Western Europe is increasing. Cirrhosis is the strongest and the most common known risk factor for HCC, usually due to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. However, different lines of evidence identify in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) a possible relevant risk factor for occurrence of HCC. Given the continuing increase in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, the incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-related HCC may also be expected to increase, and a potential role of behavior treatment and/or insulin-sensitizing drugs can be envisaged. Vaccination against HBV is the most efficient primary prevention measure currently available to reduce the HCC incidence and mortality in high-incidence areas, while data on the role of interferon (IFN) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUC) are still controversial. The pooling of data from the literature suggests a slight preventive effect of antiviral therapy on HCC development in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, but the preventive effect is limited to sustained virological responders.
SourceAvailable from: Ezequiel Ridruejo[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world and the third most common cause of cancer death, and accounts for 5.6% of all cancers. Nearly 82% of the approximately 550,000 liver cancer deaths each year occur in Asia. In some regions, cancer-related death from HCC is second only to lung cancer. The incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in America countries as a result of an ageing cohort infected with chronic hepatitis C, and are expected to continue to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Clinical care and survival for patients with HCC has advanced considerably during the last two decades, thanks to improvements in patient stratification, an enhanced understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease, and because of developments in diagnostic procedures and the introduction of novel therapies and strategies in prevention. Nevertheless, HCC remains the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. These LAASL recommendations on treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma are intended to assist physicians and other healthcare providers, as well as patients and other interested individuals, in the clinical decision-making process by describing the optimal management of patients with liver cancer.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with thalassaemia is increased by transfusion-transmitted infections and haemosiderosis. All Italian Thalassaemia Centres use an ad hoc form to report all diagnoses of HCC to the Italian Registry. Since our last report, in 2002, up to December 2012, 62 new cases were identified, 52% of whom were affected by thalassaemia major (TM) and 45% by thalassaemia intermedia (TI). Two had sickle-thalassaemia (ST). The incidence of the tumour is increasing, possibly because of the longer survival of patients and consequent longer exposure to the noxious effects of the hepatotropic viruses and iron. Three patients were hepatitis B surface antigen-positive, 36 patients showed evidence of past infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Fifty-four patients had antibodies against hepatitis C virus (HCV), 43 of whom were HCV RNA positive. Only 4 had no evidence of exposure either to HCV or HBV. The mean liver iron concentration was 8 mg/g dry weight. Therapy included chemoembolization, thermoablation with radiofrequency and surgical excision. Three patients underwent liver transplant, 21 received palliative therapy. As of December 2012, 41 patients had died. The average survival time from HCC detection to death was 11·5 months (1·4-107·2 months). Ultrasonography is recommended every 6 months to enable early diagnosis of HCC, which is crucial to decrease mortality.British Journal of Haematology 07/2014; 167(1). DOI:10.1111/bjh.13009 · 4.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ultrasound-guided techniques play a key role in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma. Among these, percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) was the first technique to be proposed for the treatment of nodular-type hepatocellular carcinoma: the role of PEI was first discussed during the European Association for the Study of the Liver conference held in Barcelona in 2000, 15 years ago. Since then, other techniques have been introduced and radiofrequency ablation now represents the most widely used percutaneous technique. PEI and radiofrequency ablation are widely used in clinical practice. However, only scant progresses in the application of these techniques have been performed over the past 15 years, and percutaneous approaches are often only marginally discussed and studied. Here, we discuss the most relevant clinical issues regarding PEI and radiofrequency ablation that have emerged in the past years.Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 01/2015; DOI:10.1586/14737140.2015.1001374 · 3.06 Impact Factor