Response to infections in patients with asthma and atopic disease: an epiphenomenon or reflection of host susceptibility?
ABSTRACT Associations between respiratory tract infections and asthma inception and exacerbations are well established. Infant respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections are known to be associated with an increased risk of asthma development, and among children with prevalent asthma, 85% of asthma exacerbations are associated with viral infections. However, the exact nature of this relationship remains unclear. Is the increase in severity of infections an epiphenomenon, meaning respiratory tract infections just appear to be more severe in patients with underlying respiratory disease, or instead a reflection of altered host susceptibility among persons with asthma and atopic disease? The main focus of this review is to summarize the available levels of evidence supporting or refuting the notion that patients with asthma or atopic disease have an altered susceptibility to selected pathogens, as well as discussing the biological mechanism or mechanisms that might explain such associations. Finally, we will outline areas in need of further research because understanding the relationships between infections and asthma has important implications for asthma prevention and treatment, including potential new pathways that might target the host immune response to select pathogens.
- The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 04/2014; 133(4):1233-1234.e3. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Over the last decade, childhood immunization has substantially reduced morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. However, particular paediatric risk groups, such as those with comorbidities, may not be adequately vaccinated despite being more susceptible to complications and death from certain infectious diseases. This may be due to lack of immunization recommendations, lack of awareness, or incomplete adherence to existing guidelines. Furthermore, recommendations for immunization can be inconsistent across Europe. An expanded initiative from the Central European Vaccination Awareness Group aims to raise awareness of the different high-risk paediatric groups, differentiate them according to their specific risk, and formalise a guidance statement for the immunization of each population.Expert Review of Vaccines 03/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the recent insights regarding the epidemiology of adult chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), with particular attention to its association with other premorbid conditions. Identifying premorbid disease associations establishes potential risk factors for developing CRS and helps corroborate current postulates of the various pathophysiologic mechanisms involved with the development and persistence of paranasal sinus inflammation. Recent findings demonstrate that the diagnosis of CRS is associated with a higher premorbid prevalence of upper airway diseases, lower airway diseases, gastroesophageal reflux disease, diseases of epithelial tissues, autoimmune disorders, and psychiatric conditions. Although some of these conditions have long been associated with CRS, improvements in study design and future studies in the general population will more accurately estimate the relative strengths of associations, clinical relevance, and temporal relationship of these various conditions in relation to the development of CRS. The predisposing patterns of premorbid illnesses may provide valuable information regarding the underlying causes of CRS and allow for both therapeutic and preventive interventions. There remains conflicting evidence within the literature regarding the association of CRS with some medical conditions, signifying the need for continued research on the subject. Limitations of the current studies include small sample sizes, lack of prospective longitudinal or interventional studies that help establish causality, and variable criteria for diagnosis of CRS in the outpatient setting.Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery 04/2014;