Shear stress augments the endothelial cell differentiation marker expression in late EPCs by upregulating integrins
ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial cell injury has been implicated in the onset of atherosclerosis. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), in particular late EPCs, play important roles in endothelial maintenance and repair. Recent evidence has revealed shear stress as a key regulator for EPC differentiation. However, the detailed events that contribute to the shear stress-induced EPC differentiation, in particular the mechanisms of mechanotransduction, remain to be identified. The present study was undertaken to further confirm the effects of shear stress on the late EPC differentiation, and to investigate the role of integrins in this procedure. Shear stress was observed to increase the expression of endothelial cell differentiation markers, such as vWF and CD31, in late EPCs isolated from rat bone marrow. Shear stress moreover enhanced the mRNA expression of integrin subunits β(1) and β(3) in a time-dependent manner, and also upregulated specific integrins in late EPCs plated on substrates containing various extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In addition, the shear stress-induced vWF and CD31 expression were found to be related to the levels of integrin β(1) and β(3), and were inhibited in late EPCs treated with RGD peptide (Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Asn-Pro, GRGDNP) that blocks the binding of integrins to the extracellular matrix. Additionally, this increase was also attenuated by both anti-β(1) integrin and anti-β(3) integrin antibodies. The integrin subunits β(1) and β(3) thus play important roles in regulating the shear stress-induced endothelial cell differentiation marker expression in late EPCs. This may provide novel insights into the mechanisms of mechanotransduction in shear stress-mediated late EPC differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), in particular late EPCs, play important roles in endothelial maintenance and repair. Recent evidence has revealed shear stress as a key regulator for EPC differentiation. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the shear stress-induced EPC differentiation have not been understood completely. The present study was undertaken to further investigate the effects of shear stress on the late EPC differentiation, and to elucidate the signal mechanism involved. In vitro and in vivo assays revealed that cytoskeletal remodeling was involved in the shear stress-upregulated expression of endothelial markers vWF and CD31 in late EPCs, with subsequently increased in vivo reendothelialization after arterial injury. Moreover, shear stress activated several mechanosensitive molecules including integrin β1, Ras, ERK1/2, paxillin and FAK, which were all involved in both cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell differentiation in response to shear stress in late EPCs. Shear stress is a key regulator for late EPC differentiation into endothelial cells, which is important for vascular repair, and the cytoskeletal rearrangement mediated by the activation of the cascade of integrin β1, Ras, ERK1/2, paxillin and FAK is crucial in this process.PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e67675. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067675 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ex vivo expansion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may be a promising strategy to overcome the clinical problem of limited cell numbers. As the culture medium is the key for the cell characteristics, the effects of different culture media on EPCs were investigated in the present study. Rat bone marrow mononuclear cells were cultured in different media, including M-199 media with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine pituitary extract (M1); M-199 media with 10% FBS, 20 ng/ml vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and 10 ng/ml basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; M2) or epidermal growth medium (EGM)-2MV media. The cell morphology and biological functions, such as proliferation, adhesion, migration, tube formation and nitric oxide (NO) production were subsequently assayed in vitro. Moreover, endothelial biomarkers and apoptosis were also analyzed. The results showed that endothelial‑like cells appeared in all of the culture systems. First‑passage cells, namely early EPCs, tended to form colonies in M2 and EGM-2MV media but showed a fusiform shape in M1 media. The 3rd or 4th generation EPCs, namely late EPCs, cultured in EGM-2MV media exhibited increased adhesion, migration, tube formation and NO production as compared with EPCs in M1 or M2 media. Furthermore, late EPCs cultured in EGM-2MV expressed higher levels of endothelial cell markers, such as von Willibrand factor (vWF)and CD31, but relatively greater levels of apoptosis were observed. In conclusion, cell culture conditions, for example the medium used, affects the biological properties of bone marrow-derived early and late EPCs.Molecular Medicine Reports 10/2013; 8(6). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2013.1718 · 1.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The patency of synthetic cardiovascular grafts in the long run is synonymous with their ability to inhibit the processes of intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis and calcification. In the human body, the endothelium of blood vessels exhibits characteristics that inhibit such processes. As such it is not surprising that research in tissue engineering is directed towards replicating the functionality of the natural endothelium in cardiovascular grafts. This can be done either by seeding the endothelium within the lumen of the grafts prior to implantation or by designing the graft such that in situ endothelialisation takes place after implantation. Due to certain difficulties identified with in vitro endothelialisation, in situ endothelialisation, which will be the focus of this article, has garnered interest in the last years. To promote in situ endothelialisation, the following aspects can be taken into account: (1) Endothelial progenital cell mobilization, adhesion and proliferation; (2) Regulating differentiation of progenitor cells to mature endothelium; (3) Preventing thrombogenesis and inflammation during endothelialisation. This article aims to review and compile recent developments to promote the in situ endothelialisation of cardiovascular grafts and subsequently improve their patency, which can also have widespread implications in the field of tissue engineering.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2014; 16(1):597-627. DOI:10.3390/ijms16010597 · 2.46 Impact Factor