Menstrual disorders.

Division of Pediatric-Adolescent Gynecology and Reconstructive Surgery, 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens, Medical School, 'Aretaieion' Hospital, Athens, Greece.
Endocrine development 01/2012; 22:160-70. DOI: 10.1159/000331697
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Menstrual disorders are very common in adolescence, and can be the cause of a significant amount of stress to both the patients and their parents. Variations of the menstrual cycle in this age are very broad and are mainly caused by the immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis. Amenorrhea (either primary or secondary), abnormal uterine bleeding and dysmenorrhea are conditions that require careful evaluation through a stepwise and logical manner. The term primary amenorrhea refers to the condition when menarche fails to occur, while secondary amenorrhea refers to the cessation of menses once they have begun. The occurrence of irregular, prolonged or heavy abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the most urgent gynecological problems in adolescence and the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding should be used only when all other organic and structural causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding have been ruled out. Dysmenorrhea refers to painful menstruation and is the most common reason for which a young girl may refer to a gynecologist. It is characterized as primary in the absence of an underlying organic disease, and as secondary when there is evidence of pelvic pathology. Appropriate and early management of the patient is necessary in order to minimize the possibility of future complications regarding woman's reproductive ability.

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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the factors influencing dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents. [Subjects] The subjects included 572 female students in three different middle schools located in Seoul, South Korea. [Methods] A cross-sectional design was adopted. The measurement tools used included a demographic form and revised Menstrual distress Questionnaire (MDQ). [Results] The analyses showed that the prediction model was significant. The value of the adjusted R(2) was 0.282, which corresponds to an explanatory power of 28.2%. The factor found to have the most influence on dysmenorrhea among Korean middle school adolescents was stress, followed by health status, onset of dysmenorrhea, consecutive days of menstruation, and dietary habits. [Conclusion] Nursing intervention programs for alleviating dysmenorrhea in Korean middle school adolescents are essential in order to reduce their level of stress, improve their perceived health status, and help them to maintain regular dietary habits. Reflecting on the recent trend of female students menstruating at a younger age, public health education courses and counseling programs should offer customized methods for alleviating dysmenorrhea.
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