Risk of post-thrombotic syndrome after subtherapeutic warfarin anticoagulation for a first unprovoked deep vein thrombosis: results from the REVERSE study.
ABSTRACT Background: Risk factors for post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) remain poorly understood. Objectives: In this multinational multicenter study, we evaluated whether subtherapeutic warfarin anticoagulation was associated with the development of PTS. Methods: Patients with a first unprovoked deep venous thrombosis (DVT) received standard anticoagulation for 5-7 months and were then assessed for PTS. The time in the therapeutic range was calculated from the international normalized ratio (INR) data. An INR below 2, more than 20% of the time, was considered as subtherapeutic anticoagulation. Results: Of the 349 patients enrolled, 97 (28%) developed PTS. The overall frequency of PTS in patients with subtherapeutic anticoagulation was 33.5%, compared with 21.6% in those with an INR below two for ≤ 20% of the time (P = 0.01). During the first 3 months of therapy, the odds ratio (OR) for developing PTS if a patient had subtherapeutic anticoagulation was 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.87). After adjusting for confounding variables, the OR was 1.84 (95% CI 1.13-3.01). Corresponding ORs for the full period of anticoagulation were 1.83 (95% CI 1.14-3.00) [crude] and 1.88 (95% CI 1.15-3.07) [adjusted]. Conclusion: Subtherapeutic warfarin anticoagulation after a first unprovoked DVT was significantly associated with the development of PTS.