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Bone Collagen Role in Piezoelectric Mediated Remineralization

Acta Microscopica 01/2009; 18:278-286.
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decades, increased knowledge about the organization, structure and properties of collagen (particularly concerning interactions between cells and collagen-based materials) has inspired scientists and engineers to design innovative collagen-based biomaterials and to develop novel tissue-engineering products. The design of resorbable collagen-based medical implants requires understanding the tissue/organ anatomy and biological function as well as the role of collagen's physicochemical properties and structure in tissue/organ regeneration. Bone is a complex tissue that plays a critical role in diverse metabolic processes mediated by calcium delivery as well as in hematopoiesis whilst maintaining skeleton strength. A wide variety of collagen-based scaffolds have been proposed for different tissue engineering applications. These scaffolds are designed to promote a biological response, such as cell interaction, and to work as artificial biomimetic extracellular matrices that guide tissue regeneration. This paper critically reviews the current understanding of the complex hierarchical structure and properties of native collagen molecules, and describes the scientific challenge of manufacturing collagen-based materials with suitable properties and shapes for specific biomedical applications, with special emphasis on bone tissue engineering. The analysis of the state of the art in the field reveals the presence of innovative techniques for scaffold and material manufacturing that are currently opening the way to the preparation of biomimetic substrates that modulate cell interaction for improved substitution, restoration, retention or enhancement of bone tissue function.
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a mathematical approach for modelling the piezoelectric behaviour of bone tissue in order to evaluate the electrical surface charges in bone under different mechanical conditions. This model is able to explain how bones change their curvature, where osteoblasts or osteoclasts could detect in the periosteal/endosteal surfaces the different electrical charges promoting bone formation or resorption. This mechanism also allows to understand the BMU progression in function of the electro-mechanical bone behaviour.
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    ABSTRACT: The development of responsive biomaterials capable of demonstrating modulated function in response to dynamic physiological and mechanical changes in vivo remains an important challenge in bone tissue engineering. To achieve long-term repair and good clinical outcomes, biologically responsive approaches that focus on repair and reconstitution of tissue structure and function through drug release, receptor recognition, environmental responsiveness and tuned biodegradability are required. Traditional orthopaedic materials lack biomimicry, and mismatches in tissue morphology, or chemical and mechanical properties ultimately accelerate device failure. Multiple stimuli have been proposed as principal contributors or mediators of cell activity and bone tissue formation, including physical factors (substrate topography, stiffness, shear stress and electrical forces) and biochemical (growth factors, genes or proteins). However optimal solutions to bone regeneration remain elusive. This review will focus on biological and physicomechanical considerations currently being explored in bone tissue engineering.
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May 29, 2014

Ana Marina Ferreira