Nanoporous silica microparticle interaction with toll-like receptor agonists in macrophages.
ABSTRACT Nanoporous silica microparticles (NSiO(2)-MP) are considered to be potential drug delivery systems and scaffolding platforms in tissue engineering. However, few biocompatibility studies regarding NSiO(2)-MP interaction with the immune system have been reported. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are involved in host defence as well as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The results show that NSiO(2)-MP up to 100μgml(-1) do not affect macrophage cell viability after 24h cell culture. Moreover, NSiO(2)-MP do not compromise the cell viability of TLR-activated Raw 264.7 cells, for either cell surface TLR (TLR1/TLR2/TLR4/TLR6) or endocytic compartment TLR (TLR3/TLR7/TLR9). Furthermore, Raw 264.7 cells do not respond to NSiO(2)-MP exposure in terms of IL-6 or IL-10 secretion. NSiO(2)-MP co-treatment in the presence of TLR ligands does not impair or enhance the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 or the regulatory cytokine IL-10. Thus, NSiO(2)-MP do not affect macrophage polarization towards a pro-inflammatory or immunosuppressive status, representing added value in terms of biocompatibility compared with other SiO(2)-based micro- and nanoparticles.