Hyperoxia, hypocapnia and hypercapnia as outcome factors after cardiac arrest in children
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Arterial hyperoxia after resuscitation has been associated with increased mortality in adults. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that post-resuscitation hyperoxia and hypocapnia are associated with increased mortality after resuscitation in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational multicenter hospital-based study including 223 children aged between 1 month and 18 years who achieved return of spontaneous circulation after in-hospital cardiac arrest and for whom arterial blood gas analysis data were available. RESULTS: After return of spontaneous circulation, 8.5% of patients had hyperoxia (defined as PaO(2)>300mmHg) and 26.5% hypoxia (defined as PaO(2)<60mmHg). No statistical differences in mortality were observed when patients with hyperoxia (52.6%), hypoxia (42.4%), or normoxia (40.7%) (p=0.61). Hypocapnia (defined as PaCO(2)<30mmHg) was observed in 13.5% of patients and hypercapnia (defined as PaCO(2)>50mmHg) in 27.6%. Patients with hypercapnia or hypocapnia had significantly higher mortality (59.0% and 50.0%, respectively) than patients with normocapnia (33.1%) (p=0.002). At 24h after return of spontaneous circulation, neither PaO(2) nor PaCO(2) values were associated with mortality. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that hypercapnia (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.62-6.61; p=0.001) and hypocapnia (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.04-7.05; p=0.04) after return of spontaneous circulation were significant mortality factors. CONCLUSIONS: In children resuscitated from cardiac arrest, hyperoxemia after return of spontaneous circulation or 24h later was not associated with mortality. On the other hand, hypercapnia and hypocapnia were associated with higher mortality than normocapnia.
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ABSTRACT: Most studies have analyzed pre-arrest and resuscitation factors associated with mortality after cardiac arrest (CA) in children, but many patients that reach return of spontaneous circulation die within the next days or weeks. The objective of our study was to analyze post-return of spontaneous circulation factors associated with in-hospital mortality after cardiac arrest in children. A prospective multicenter, multinational, observational study in 48 hospitals from 12 countries was performed. A total of 502 children aged between 1 month and 18 years with in-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed. The primary endpoint was survival to hospital discharge. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of each post-return of spontaneous circulation factor on mortality. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 69.5% of patients; 39.2% survived to hospital discharge and 88.9% of survivors had good neurological outcome. In the univariate analysis, post- return of spontaneous circulation factors related with mortality were pH, base deficit, lactic acid, bicarbonate, FiO2, need for inotropic support, inotropic index, dose of dopamine and dobutamine at 1 hour and at 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation as well as Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and total hospital length of stay. In the multivariate analysis factors associated with mortality at 1 hour after return of spontaneous circulation were PaCO2 < 30 mmHg and >50 mmHg, inotropic index >14 and lactic acid >5 mmol/L. Factors associated with mortality at 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation were PaCO2 > 50 mmHg, inotropic index >14 and FiO2 ≥ 0.80. Secondary in-hospital mortality among the initial survivors of CA is high. Hypoventilation, hyperventilation, FiO2 ≥ 0.80, the need for high doses of inotropic support, and high levels of lactic acid were the most important post-return of spontaneous circulation factors associated with in-hospital mortality in children in our population.Intensive Care Medicine 11/2012; 39(2). DOI:10.1007/s00134-012-2709-7 · 7.21 Impact Factor
Article: Resuscitation highlights in 2014Resuscitation 02/2013; 84(2):129-36. DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.01.002 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) affects neuronal function and cerebral blood flow. However, its association with outcome in patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac arrest (CA) has not been evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Observational cohort study using data from the Australian New Zealand (ANZ) Intensive Care Society Adult-Patient-Database (ANZICS-APD). Outcomes analyses were adjusted for illness severity, co-morbidities, hypothermia, treatment limitations, age, year of admission, glucose, source of admission, PaO2 and propensity score. We studied 16,542 consecutive patients admitted to 125 ANZ ICUs after CA between 2000 and 2011. Using the APD-PaCO2 (obtained within 24hrs of ICU admission), 3010 (18.2%) were classified into the hypo- (PaCO2<35mmHg), 6705 (40.5%) into the normo- (35-45mmHg) and 6827 (41.3%) into the hypercapnia (>45mmHg) group. The hypocapnia group, compared with the normocapnia group, had a trend toward higher in-hospital mortality (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.00-1.24, p=0.04]), lower rate of discharge home (OR 0.81 [0.70-0.94, p<0.01]) and higher likelihood of fulfilling composite adverse outcome of death and no discharge home (OR 1.23 [1.10-1.37, p<0.001]). In contrast, the hypercapnia group had similar in-hospital mortality (OR 1.06 [0.97-1.15, p=0.19]) but higher rate of discharge home among survivors (OR 1.16 [1.03-1.32, p=0.01]) and similar likelihood of fulfilling the composite outcome (OR 0.97 [0.89-1.06, p=0.52]). Cox-proportional hazards modelling supported these findings. CONCLUSIONS: Hypo- and hypercapnia are common after ICU admission post-CA. Compared with normocapnia, hypocapnia was independently associated with worse clinical outcomes and hypercapnia a greater likelihood of discharge home among survivors.Resuscitation 02/2013; 84(7). DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2013.02.014 · 3.96 Impact Factor