Hyperoxia, hypocapnia and hypercapnia as outcome factors after cardiac arrest in children

Pediatric Intensive Care Department, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, Madrid, Spain.
Resuscitation (Impact Factor: 4.17). 07/2012; 83(12). DOI: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2012.07.019
Source: PubMed


Arterial hyperoxia after resuscitation has been associated with increased mortality in adults. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that post-resuscitation hyperoxia and hypocapnia are associated with increased mortality after resuscitation in pediatric patients.

We performed a prospective observational multicenter hospital-based study including 223 children aged between 1 month and 18 years who achieved return of spontaneous circulation after in-hospital cardiac arrest and for whom arterial blood gas analysis data were available.

After return of spontaneous circulation, 8.5% of patients had hyperoxia (defined as PaO(2)>300 mm Hg) and 26.5% hypoxia (defined as PaO(2)<60 mm Hg). No statistical differences in mortality were observed when patients with hyperoxia (52.6%), hypoxia (42.4%), or normoxia (40.7%) (p=0.61). Hypocapnia (defined as PaCO(2)<30 mm Hg) was observed in 13.5% of patients and hypercapnia (defined as PaCO(2)>50 mm Hg) in 27.6%. Patients with hypercapnia or hypocapnia had significantly higher mortality (59.0% and 50.0%, respectively) than patients with normocapnia (33.1%) (p=0.002). At 24h after return of spontaneous circulation, neither PaO(2) nor PaCO(2) values were associated with mortality. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that hypercapnia (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.62-6.61; p=0.001) and hypocapnia (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.04-7.05; p=0.04) after return of spontaneous circulation were significant mortality factors.

In children resuscitated from cardiac arrest, hyperoxemia after return of spontaneous circulation or 24h later was not associated with mortality. On the other hand, hypercapnia and hypocapnia were associated with higher mortality than normocapnia.

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    • "Partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) is a major regulator of cerebral blood flow. Hypocapnia and hypercapnia after ROSC have previously been demonstrated to be associated with poor outcomes in both adult and pediatric post-cardiac arrest patients [5,6]. In theory, hypocapnia could decrease cerebral blood flow, inducing or exacerbating cerebral ischemia [7-9], while hypercapnia could increase intracranial pressure and compound metabolic acidosis, which is common after ROSC [6,10-12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Post-cardiac arrest hypocapnia/hypercapnia have been associated with poor neurological outcome. However, the impact of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) derangements during the immediate post-resuscitation period following cardiac arrest remains uncertain. We sought to test the correlation between prescribed minute ventilation and post-resuscitation partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2), and to test the association between early PaCO2 and neurological outcome. We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively compiled single-center cardiac arrest registry. We included adult (age >= 18 years) patients who experienced a non-traumatic cardiac arrest and required mechanical ventilation. We analyzed initial post-resuscitation ventilator settings and initial arterial blood gas analysis (ABG) after initiation of post-resuscitation ventilator settings. We calculated prescribed minute ventilation:MVmL/kg/min=tidalvolumeTV/idealbodyweightIBWxrespiratoryrateRRfor each patient. We then used Pearson's correlation to test the correlations between prescribed MV and PaCO2. We also determined whether patients had normocapnia (PaCO2 between 30 and 50 mmHg) on initial ABG and tested the association between normocapnia and good neurological function (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2) at hospital discharge using logistic regression analyses. Seventy-five patients were included. The majority of patients were in-hospital arrests (85%). Pulseless electrical activity/asystole was the initial rhythm in 75% of patients. The median (IQR) TV, RR, and MV were 7 (7 to 8) mL/kg, 14 (14 to 16) breaths/minute, and 106 (91 to 125) mL/kg/min, respectively. Hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia were found in 15%, 62%, and 23% of patients, respectively. Good neurological function occurred in 32% of all patients, and 18%, 43%, and 12% of patients with hypocapnia, normocapnia, and hypercapnia respectively. We found prescribed MV had only a weak correlation with initial PaCO2, R = -0.40 (P < 0.001). Normocapnia was associated with good neurological function, odds ratio 4.44 (95%CI 1.33 to 14.85). We found initial prescribed MV had only a weak correlation with subsequent PaCO2 and that early Normocapnia was associated with good neurological outcome. These data provide rationale for future research to determine the impact of PaCO2 management during mechanical ventilation in post-cardiac arrest patients.
    Annals of Intensive Care 03/2014; 4(1):9. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-4-9 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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    • "In this single centre study we found that hyperoxia is a common phenomenon during the first 24 hours after cardiac arrest. The incidence was higher than in the two previous registry trials and a recent trial focusing on pediatric cardiac arrest [7,8,12]. Hyperoxia exposure is more common following OHCA, which may be related to differences in arrest aetiology, difficulties with monitoring, the use of higher fractions of oxygen than needed, and lack of protocols for adjusting inspired oxygen concentration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of the study Arterial hyperoxia during care in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been found to correlate with mortality after cardiac arrest (CA). We examined the prevalence of hyperoxia following CA including pre-ICU values and studied differences between those exposed and those not exposed to define predictors of exposure. Materials and methods A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of cardiac arrest patients treated in an Australian tertiary hospital between August 2008 and July 2010. Arterial blood oxygen values and used fractions of oxygen were recorded during the first 24 hours after the arrest. Hyperoxia was defined as any arterial oxygen value greater than 300 mmHg. Chi-square test was used to compare categorical data and Mann–Whitney U-test to continuous data. Statistical methods were used to identify predictors of hyperoxia exposure. Results Of 122 patients treated in the ICU following cardiac arrest 119 had one or several arterial blood gases taken and were included in the study. Of these, 49 (41.2%) were exposed to hyperoxia and 70 (58.8%) were not during the first 24 hours after the CA. Those exposed had longer delays to return of spontaneous circulation (26 minutes vs. 10 minutes) and a longer interval to ICU admission after the arrest (4 hours compared to 1 hour). Location of the arrest was an independent predictor of exposure to hyperoxia (P-value = 0,008) with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients being more likely to have been exposed (65%), than those with an in-hospital (21%) or ICU (30%) cardiac arrest. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients had higher oxygen concentrations to the fraction of inspired oxygen ratios. Conclusions Hyperoxia exposure was more common than previously reported and occurred more frequently in association with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, longer times to ROSC and delays to ICU admission.
    Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 05/2013; 21(1):35. DOI:10.1186/1757-7241-21-35 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To analyze prognostic factors associated with in-hospital cardiac arrest (CA) in children. Methods: A prospective, multicenter, multinational, observational study was performed on pediatric in-hospital CA in 12 countries and included 502 children between 1 month and 18 years. The primary endpoint was survival at hospital discharge. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the influence of each factor on mortality. Results: Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 69.5 % of patients; 39.2 % survived to hospital discharge and 88.9 % of survivors had good neurological outcome. The pre-arrest factors related to mortality were lower Human Development Index [odds ratio (OR) 2.32, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.28-4.21], oncohematologic disease (OR 3.33, 95 % CI 1.60-6.98), and treatment with inotropic drugs at the time of CA (OR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.55-3.56). CA and resuscitation factors related to mortality were CA due to neurological disease (OR 5.19, 95 % CI 1.49-18.73) and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation greater than 10 min (OR 4.00, 95 % CI 1.49-18.73). Factors related to survival were CA occurring in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) (OR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.16-0.86) and shockable rhythm (OR 0.26, 95 % CI 0.09-0.73). Conclusions: In-hospital CA in children has a low survival but most of the survivors have a good neurological outcome. Some prognostic risk factors cannot be modified, making it important to focus efforts on improving hospital organization to care for children at risk of CA in the PICU and, in particular, in other hospital areas.
    Intensive Care Medicine 11/2012; 39(2). DOI:10.1007/s00134-012-2709-7 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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