Fungi: Their role in deterioration of cultural heritage

Fungal Biology Reviews 01/2010; DOI: 10.1016/j.fbr.2010.03.003

ABSTRACT Fungi play a considerable role for the deterioration of cultural heritage. Due to their enormous enzymatic activity and their ability to grow at low aw values fungi are able to inhabit and to decay paintings, textiles, paper, parchment, leather, oil, casein, glue and other materials used for historical art objects. The weathering of stone monuments is significantly increased by epi- and endolitic fungi. In museums and their storage rooms, climate control, regular cleaning and microbiological monitoring are essential in order to prevent fungal contamination. Education and close collaboration of mycologists and restorers are needed to develop object specific methods for the conservation and treatment of contaminated objects.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The inhabitation of microorganisms and their subsequent interaction with mineral matrix of the stone substrate under varied environmental conditions encourages deterioration of stones leading to the loss of strength, durability and aesthetic. This study highlighted the synthesis of nanosilver particles (AgNPs) using the biogenic volatiles of the bacterial strain Nesterenkonia halobia. The antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were evaluated against the gram positive bacterial strain Streptomyces parvullus and fungal strain Apergillus niger. Furthermore, the silver particles were mixed with two types of consolidation polymers and were used to coat the external surfaces of sandstone and limestone blocks. The stones treated with silicon polymer loaded with AgNPs showed an elevated antimicrobial potentiality against A. niger and S. parvullus. Scan electron microscope (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of treated stones demonstrated the existence of nano-composite structures containing the elemental silver. Polymers functionalized with AgNPs can be used not only as potent biocides but also for the consolidation of the historic monuments and artifacts. Keywords Biogenic volatiles; Nanosilver; Antibacterial; Antifungal; Polymers
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 10/2014; 94:31-37. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the microbial community (bacteria and fungi) colonising an oil painting on canvas, which showed visible signs of biodeterioration. A combined strategy, comprising culture-dependent and -independent techniques, was selected. The results derived from the two techniques were disparate. Most of the isolated bacterial strains belonged to related species of the phylum Firmicutes, as Bacillus sp. and Paenisporosarcina sp., whereas the majority of the non-cultivable members of the bacterial community were shown to be related to species of the phylum Proteobacteria, as Stenotrophomonas sp. Fungal communities also showed discrepancies: the isolated fungal strains belonged to different genera of the order Eurotiales, as Penicillium and Eurotium, and the non-cultivable belonged to species of the order Pleosporales and Saccharomycetales. The cultivable microorganisms, which exhibited enzymatic activities related to the deterioration processes, were selected to evaluate their biodeteriorative potential on canvas paintings; namely Arthrobacter sp. as the representative bacterium and Penicillium sp. as the representative fungus. With this aim, a sample taken from the painting studied in this work was examined to determine the stratigraphic sequence of its cross-section. From this information, "mock paintings," simulating the structure of the original painting, were prepared, inoculated with the selected bacterial and fungal strains, and subsequently examined by micro-Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, in order to determine their potential susceptibility to microbial degradation. The FTIR-spectra revealed that neither Arthrobacter sp. nor Penicillium sp. alone, were able to induce chemical changes on the various materials used to prepare "mock paintings." Only when inoculated together, could a synergistic effect on the FTIR-spectra be observed, in the form of a variation in band position on the spectrum.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80198. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To investigate fungal contamination in ethnographic objects from the Museu do Índio (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), from a particular indian community named Urubu-Kaapor. Results were compared to the same investigation on objects from other indian tribes, to determine possible cross-contamination between objects, if stored in the same repository in the museum. Study Design: Selection and materials characterization of the objects from distinct ethnographic collections, followed by an investigation of the fungal contamination through the use of swab techniques and specific culture medium. Place and Duration of Study: Museu do Índio, located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between April and December 2012. Methodology: Samples: We included 5 ethnographic objects from Urubu-Kaapor indian community, probably non-contaminated due to its chemical constitution and state of conservation and 5 ethnographic objects from Xavante, Nambikwáras and Kamayurá
    Annual Research & Review in Biology. 01/2014; 4(7):1024.


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May 29, 2014