Prevalence of hepatitis B and A virus markers and vaccination indication in cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation in Spain.
ABSTRACT In the absence of immunity, vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for patients with chronic liver disease and those evaluated for liver transplantation (OLT) HAV and HBV infections after OLT which are frequent in this setting, are associated with a worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the need for vaccination against HBV and HAV among cirrhotic patients who were candidates for OLT and associations with gender, age, and etiologic factors. HBV and HAV serological markers HBsAg, anti-HBc, antiHBs, immunoglobulin G (IgG)-anti-HAV were investigated among 568 patients, including 75% men. The overall mean age was 53.6 ± 8.9 years range 17-69, and 20% were diabetic. This etiologies were alcohol (68%), hepatitis C virus (35%) or other causes (10.4%). Child-Pugh classes were: A (26%), B (44%), and C (30%). In contrast with 359 patients (63.2%) who had negative HBV markers, 209 (36.8%) were positive: HBsAg (+), 43 (7.6%), isolated anti-HBc (+), 57 (10%), isolated anti-HBs (+), 19 (3.3%), anti-HBc (+)/anti-HBs (+), 90 (15.8%). HBV vaccine indication was performed in 416 patients (73.2%) who either had negative HBV markers or isolated anti-HBc (+). It was more frequently performed in women (82.3% versus 70.3%, P = .005), albeit with no differences according to age or etiology. There were only 8.2% (44/538) IgG-anti-HAV-negative, an indication for vaccination against HAV, which was more frequent affecting patients who were younger [≤ 45 years (27.6%), 46-55 (7.2%), >55 (2.6%); P < .0001)]; nondiabetic (9.5% versus 2.8%, P = .023); nonalcoholic (11.4% versus 6.6%, P = .056); and displayed negative HBV markers (10.2% versus 4.6%, P = .023). Only three patients with IgG-anti- HAV (-) were over 60 years. In conclusion, there is a frequent indication for HBV vaccination among cirrhotic and especially HAV vaccine for under 45 year old patients undergoing evaluation for OLT.
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ABSTRACT: Administration of vaccine for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) because of the potential for increased severity of acute hepatitis superimposed on existing liver disease. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of antibodies directed against HAV and HBV in patients with CHC, analyze demographic and risk factors associated with this prevalence, and develop a cost-effective vaccination strategy. We reviewed records from 1092 CHC patients. Demographics and information regarding risk factors were obtained by history and questionnaire administered to all patients. The costs of vaccination and antibody testing were determined, based on standard laboratory and clinic charges at our institution. HAV and HBV markers were correlated to race, age, and risk factors. Of the total population studied (n = 1092), 72% were African-Americans, 27% white, and 1% others. Of 671 CHC patients tested for anti-HAV IgG, 252 (38%) were positive. Of 743 CHC patients tested for HBV antibodies (anti-hepatitis B core IgG or anti-hepatitis B surface), 494 (67%) were positive. African-Americans are more likely to have antibodies to HAV and HBV (67% and 75%, respectively) compared to whites (27% and 20%). The prevalence of anti-HAV was 76% in patients >60 yr, 34% in the 40- to 60-yr-old age group, and 21% in patients <40 yr. The highest prevalence of HBV antibodies was found in patients between the ages of 40-60 yr. No HCV risk factors were associated with increased HAV risk. In CHC patients with HBV antibodies, however, illicit injection drug use was the predominant risk factor. The prevalence of anti-HAV in patients with CHC was found to be similar to that of the general population in the United States (33% according to recent Centers for Disease Control data), consistent with the hypothesis that the two infections do not share risk factors. Because the prevalence of HAV immunity is low in CHC patients <40 yr, empiric HAV vaccination is cost effective. If two doses of vaccine are to be given, however, antibody testing of all HCV patients is indicated. In the subset of patients >60 yr of age or who are African-American, where the prevalence of HAV exposure is considerably higher, it would be cost effective to check the antibody ($36.00), before vaccination ($97.00). The prevalence of HBV antibodies, however, is significantly increased in patients with CHC compared with the general population (5.3% per the Centers for Disease Control), likely as a result of exposure to similar parenteral risk factors. HBV antibody testing ($26.00 per test) should, therefore, be undertaken in all CHC patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen negative, as this approach is cost-effective compared to empiric HBV vaccination ($438.00 for a three injection course).The American Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2001; 96(3):858-63. · 7.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the main uses of seroprevalence studies it to evaluate vaccination programmes. In 1998, a programme of universal vaccination of preadolescents in schools with the hepatitis A vaccine was begun in Catalonia. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A virus infection (HAV) in a sample of the adult population of Catalonia in 2002 and to evaluate the changes with respect to a survey carried out in 1996. The prevalence of HAV antibodies was determined by a third generation competitive immunometric assay in a representative sample of 1292 people aged >15 years. The association between the prevalence and different sociodemographic variables was determined by multiple logistic regression analysis. The standardized global prevalence of HAV antibodies in 2002 was 68.2%, increased with age (p < 0.0001) and was associated with being born outside Catalonia (OR: 1.75; 95% CI 1.11-2.76) and lower social class (OR: 1.14; 95% CI 1.05-1.25). Compared with the last survey carried out in 1996 the standardized global prevalence was lower (68.2% vs 77.8%; p < 0.0001) as was the prevalence in people under 45 years. The prevalence of the hepatitis A virus is decreasing in the adult population of Catalonia, especially in the younger age groups. The programme of vaccination of adolescents begun in 1998 to control the disease can provide indirect protection to the unvaccinated population.BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2007; 7:73. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine changes in the epidemiology of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Basque Country, Spain, and to evaluate their implications for vaccination strategies. A total of 1356 persons were enrolled in a study of the prevalence of anti-HAV in 2004 and compared with two previous studies (1986-1987 and 1992). The selection method and the characteristics of the population were similar in the three studies. A marked decline in the seroprevalence in all age groups (P<0.001) and in the incidence of cases/100,000 inhabitants (from 38.0 in 1986-1988 to 2.9 in 2002-2004) were observed. The mean age of patients with hepatitis A increased from 17.7 years in 1986-1992 to 21.2 years in 1993-1998 and 25.3 years in 1999-2004 (P<0.001). Between 1997 and 2004, 20% of patients were hospitalized. The changes observed have occurred rapidly causing a change in the epidemiological pattern from middle-high endemicity (1986) to low endemicity (2004).Epidemiology and Infection 04/2007; 135(3):402-8. · 2.87 Impact Factor