Selective extraction and determination of vitamin B12 in urine by ionic liquid-based aqueous two-phase system prior to high-performance liquid chromatography.
ABSTRACT A rapid and simple extraction technique based on aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) was developed for separation and enrichment of vitamin B(12) in urine samples. The proposed ATPS-based method involves the application of the hydrophilic ionic liquid (IL) 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and K(2)HPO(4). After the extraction procedure, the vitamin B(12)-enriched IL upper phase was directly injected into the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system for analysis. All variables influencing the IL-based ATPS approach (e.g., the composition of ATPS, pH and temperature values) were evaluated. The average extraction efficiency was 97% under optimum conditions. Only 5.0 mL of sample and a single hydrolysis/deproteinization/extraction step were required, followed by direct injection of the IL-rich upper phase into HPLC system for vitamin B(12) determination. A detection limit of 0.09 μg mL(-1), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.50% (n=10) and a linear range of 0.40-8.00 μg mL(-1) were obtained. The proposed green analytical procedure was satisfactorily applied to the analysis of samples with highly complex matrices, such as urine. Finally, the IL-ATPS technique could be considered as an efficient tool for the water-soluble vitamin B(12) extraction.
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ABSTRACT: Immunoassays have a broad application range, from environmental and food toxicology to biomedical analysis, providing rapid and simple methods for analyte quantification. Immunoassays, however, are often challenging at nM and sub nM concentrations and are affected by detrimental matrix interference effects, as is the case of the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). These are widespread mycotoxins found in food and feed, with serious potential implications for human health. This work demonstrates the use of polymer-salt aqueous two phase systems (ATPSs) for the simultaneous concentration of mycotoxins and neutralization of matrix interference. In particular, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-phosphate salt ATPSs were used to enhance the detection sensitivity of OTA and AFB1 in wines and beer by an indirect competitive ELISA. Using this methodology it was possible to quantify both analytes spiked in red wine with limits-of-detection (LoD) down to 0.19ng/mL and 0.035ng/mL, respectively, with results comparable to those obtained using solutions of toxins in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) buffer (0.7ng/mL and 0.009ng/mL, respectively). Furthermore, a very low matrix-to matrix variability was observed, with LoD and half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5.17±1.08 and 33.2±3.5ng/mL (±SD) obtained in the detection of OTA spiked in red and white wines, beer or PBS buffer. These results indicate the potential of ATPS as a fast and simple concentration step and in providing matrix-independent analyte quantification for enhanced immunoassay sensitivity below regulatory levels.Journal of chromatography. A. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Ionic liquids (ILs) are novel solvents that display a number of unique properties, such as negligible vapor pressure, thermal stability (even at high temperatures), favorable viscosity, and miscibility with water and organic solvents. These properties make them attractive alternatives to environmentally unfriendly solvents that produce volatile organic compounds. In this article, a critical review of state-of-the-art developments in the use of ILs for the separation and preconcentration of bioanalytes in biological samples is presented. Special attention is paid to the determination of various organic and inorganic analytes-including contaminants (e.g., pesticides, nicotine, opioids, gold, arsenic, lead, etc.) and functional biomolecules (e.g., testosterone, vitamin B12, hemoglobin)-in urine, blood, saliva, hair, and nail samples. A brief introduction to modern microextraction techniques based on ILs, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and single-drop microextraction (SDME), is provided. A comparison of IL-based methods in terms of their limits of detection and environmental compatibilities is also made. Finally, critical issues and challenges that have arisen from the use of ILs in separation and preconcentration techniques are also discussed.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 05/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new fluorescent probe, 4-N,N-di(2-hydroxyethyl)imino-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (HINBD) was synthesized in a single step with reasonably good yield. The water-soluble HINBD emits strongly in the visible region (λex = 479 nm, λem = 545 nm) and is stable over a wide range of pH values. It was found that vitamin B12 (VB12 ) had the ability to quench the fluorescence of HINBD, and the quenched fluorescence intensity was proportional to the concentration of VB12 . A method for VB12 determination based on the quenching fluorescence of HINBD was thus established. Interference effects of various substances, including sugars, vitamins, amino acids, inorganic cations and some organic substances have been studied. Under optimal conditions, the linear range is 0.0-2.4 × 10(-5) mol/L. The determination limit is 8.3 × 10(-8) mol/L. The method was applied to measure VB12 in pharmaceutical preparations with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Luminescence 10/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor