Sleep-disordered breathing symptoms among African-Americans in the Jackson Heart Study
ABSTRACT Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is an increasingly recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited data are available from large African American cohorts.
We examined the prevalence, burden, and correlates of sleep symptoms suggestive of SDB and risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), an all-African-American cohort of 5301 adults. Data on selected daytime and nighttime sleep symptoms were collected using a modified Berlin questionnaire during the baseline examination. Risk of OSA was calculated according to published prediction model. Age and multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between potential risk factors and measures of sleep.
Sleep symptoms, burden, and risk of OSA were high among men and women in the JHS and increased with age and obesity. Being married was positively associated with sleep symptoms among women. In men, poor to fair perceived health and increased levels of stress were associated with higher odds of sleep burden, whereas prevalent hypertension and CVD were associated with higher odds of OSA risk. Similar associations were observed among women with slight variations. Sleep duration <7h was associated with increased odds of sleep symptoms among women and increased sleep burden among men. Moderate to severe restless sleep was consistently and positively associated with odds of adverse sleep symptoms, sleep burden, and high risk OSA.
Sleep symptoms in JHS had a strong positive association with features of visceral obesity, stress, and poor perceived health. With increasing obesity among younger African Americans, these findings are likely to have broad public health implications.
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ABSTRACT: Background Hypoxia plays an important role in the development of solid tumors. Intermittent hypoxia is the hallmark of sleep apnea (SA). We tested the hypothesis that SA may increase the risk of breast cancer in Taiwan by using a population-based data set. Methods Our study cohort consisted of women diagnosed with SA between January 2003 and December 2005 (n = 846). For each SA patient, five age-matched control women were randomly selected as the comparison cohort (n = 4230). All participant cases were followed for five years from the index date to identify the development of breast cancer. Cox proportional-hazards regression was performed to evaluate the five-year breast-cancer-free survival rates. Results Forty-four women developed breast cancer during the five-year follow-up period, among whom 12 were SA patients and 32 were in the comparison cohort. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer in patients with SA was higher [HR, 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06–4.12; P < 0.05] than that of the controls during the five-year follow-up. Despite not meeting statistical significance, we found increases in the risk of breast cancer in women aged 30–59 years (HR, 2.06; 95% CI, 0.90–4.70) and ≥60 years (HR, 3.05; 95% CI, 0.90–10.32) compared with those aged 0–29 years. Conclusion The findings of our population-based study suggest an association between SA and an increased risk of breast cancer in women.Sleep Medicine 09/2014; 15(9). DOI:10.1016/j.sleep.2014.05.026 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. It is frequently associated with cardiopulmonary diseases that are prevalent in African Americans (AAs). However, the prevalence or determinants of PH in the AA population is not known. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of PH (defined as trans-tricuspid gradient ≥ 35 mm Hg) and associated clinical characteristics in AAs using the Jackson Heart Study cohort (n=3,282) who underwent echocardiography and had a measurable trans-tricuspid regurgitant jet. Echocardiography is frequently used for screening for PH despite its limitations in estimating accurate PA systolic pressures. Overall and age-adjusted gender-specific prevalence were estimated and modified Poisson regression was used to identify independent clinical, spirometric, and echocardiographic characteristics associated with PH. The mean age of the study population was 56.1 ± 12.6 years with 67.5% female. The prevalence of PH was 6.8%, with higher prevalence in female AAs (age-adjusted prevalence: Men 4.9%, 95% CI 3.6-6.2%; Women 7.7%, 95% CI 6.6-8.8%). Pulmonary hypertension prevalence increased with age (Prevalence Ratio: 10.0, 95%CI 4.0-25.1, >65 versus <45 years old), presence of obesity, higher pulse pressure, diabetes, obstructive or restrictive spirometry pattern, and severe left heart valvular disease. Also, PH was significantly associated with left atrial size and left ventricular ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is prevalent in AAs, more in women than in men. The identified cardiopulmonary risk factors that increase the prevalence of PH may assist in diagnosis and management of these at-risk subjects in the AA population.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84264. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084264 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Study Objectives: Home-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with portable monitoring (PM) is increasingly utilized, but remains understudied in underserved and minority populations. We tested the feasibility of home PM in an urban population at risk for OSA compared to in-laboratory polysomnography (PSG) and examined patient preference with respect to home PM versus PSG. Methods: Randomized crossover study of home PM (WatchPAT200) and in-laboratory simultaneous PSG and PM in 75 urban African Americans with high pre-test probability of OSA, identified with the Berlin questionnaire. Results: Fifty-seven of 75 participants were women, average age 45 +/- 11 years (mean +/- SD), 35% with <= high school education, and 76% with annual household income < $50,000. Technical failure rates were 5.3% for home vs. 3.1% for in-laboratory PM. There was good agreement between apnea hypopnea index on PSG; AHI(PSG) and AHI on home PM (mean +/- 2 SD of the differences = 0.64 +/- 46.5 and intraclass correlation coefficient; ICC = 0.73). The areas under the curve for the receiver-operator characteristic curves for home PM were 0.90 for AHI(PSG) >= 5, 0.95 for AHI(PSG) >= 10, and 0.92 for AHI(PSG) >= 15. 62/75 (82%) participants preferred home over in-laboratory testing. Conclusions: Home PM for diagnosis of OSA in a high risk urban population is feasible, accurate, and preferred by patients. As home PM may improve access to care, the cost-effectiveness of this diagnostic strategy for OSA should be examined in underserved urban and rural populations.Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2014; 10(8):879-85. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.3960 · 2.83 Impact Factor