Clinical variability in approaches to polycystic ovary syndrome.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of initial diagnosis and management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) among members of the North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (NASPAG) to assess the degree of practice heterogeneity among specialist providers of adolescent care.
Cross-sectional, anonymous, internet survey
NASPAG membership (N = 326; Respondents = 127 (39%))
Percentage of respondents who incorporated specific tests at initial diagnosis was highly variable ranging from 87% (thyroid stimulating hormone) to 17% (sex hormone binding globulin). Oral contraceptives and diet modification/exercise were the most common therapies recommended by 98% and 90% of respondents respectively.
Considerable practice heterogeneity was present with regards to diagnostic testing for suspected PCOS. Recommendations for first-line therapy were more consistent. Future studies should clarify the clinical utility of specific diagnostic tests for adolescents, such that selection of diagnostic testing is evidence based.
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ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women that manifests itself with a variety of features. For this reason, three different diagnostic criteria have been introduced. For adults, the National Institutes of Health Conference (NIH) criteria, which consists of hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation, is the most widely used. Symptoms of PCOS usually start with puberty and may overlap with normal pubertal development. Hormonal fluctuations during this period make the diagnosis of PCOS more difficult. Until now, there is no validated diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents. Although menstrual disorders and cosmetic problems are the most common complaints of adolescents with PCOS, patients should also be evaluated for the potential risk for insulin resistance, obesity, subclinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the most prominent predictor of metabolic syndrome. As the incidence of obesity is increasing both in childhood and adolescence, governments will be faced with a social and economic burden in the future. Adolescents with PCOS are more obese than normal adolescents and have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that abdominal adiposity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome by inducing various cytokine secretions. Although there is no consensus on metabolic syndrome criteria in the adolescent period, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria may be used for children older than 10 years. Various clinical and metabolic markers are investigated for the prediction of metabolic syndrome in the literature. Waist circumference, serum triglycerides and androgens are the suspected predictors of metabolic syndrome. The prevention of abdominal adiposity and the early diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence should be the main target for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should investigate adolescents with PCOS for metabolic and cardiovascular risks and take preventive action. A Mediterranean diet, low in fat and high in fruits and vegetables, along with moderate-intensity exercise and smoking cessation are the recommended interventions for especially obese adolescents with PCOS. Metformin may be the treatment of choice when lifestyle modifications are ineffective.Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association. 03/2014; 15(1):49-55.
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ABSTRACT: STUDY OBJECTIVE: Evaluate for differences in the management of adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) across 3 pediatric specialties. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records. SETTING: Academic children's hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 181 adolescents seen between July 2008 and June 2010 by providers in Pediatric Endocrinology (PEndo), Adolescent Medicine (AMed), or Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology (PGyn) identified via billing data (ICD-9 code for PCOS, 256.4). INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (1) Percentage of adolescents with a billing diagnosis of PCOS who met diagnostic criteria; (2) Percentage of individuals screened for comorbidities and differences across specialties; (3) Differences in treatment recommendations across specialties; (4) Factors associated with recommendation for metformin and hormonal contraceptives. RESULTS: Thirteen percent of PEndo patients did not meet diagnostic criteria for PCOS; 20% of AMed and PGyn patients did not meet criteria. There were significant differences in rates of screening for obesity, insulin resistance, and Type 2 diabetes. There were significant differences in treatment recommendations for lifestyle changes, metformin, and anti-androgen therapy across specialties. Specialty and obesity were significant predictors of metformin recommendation; specifically PEndo predicted metformin recommendation. PGyn and AMed specialties predicted hormonal contraceptive recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: The variability observed among specialties may be due to differences in training, accounting for a range of comfort with aspects of PCOS. Formulation of consensus guidelines for diagnosis and management of PCOS are needed, along with broad educational efforts. By correctly diagnosing, screening for comorbidities, and managing PCOS appropriately during adolescence, providers may reduce the risk for long-term consequences.Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology 05/2013; · 0.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Screening for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is recommended for adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Whether glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) can be used for screening in this patient population is unknown. We sought to determine the utility of HbA1c and 2-hour OGTT for diagnosing dysglycemia in adolescents with PCOS. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of 68 adolescents with PCOS seen in the Boston Children's Hospital Division of Adolescent Medicine between 2008 and 2011 and not known to have diabetes. Prevalence of dysglycemia (impaired fasting glucose, IGT, increased risk for diabetes, or diabetes mellitus as diagnosed by fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour OGTT, and/or HbA1c) and sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c for diagnosing dysglycemia compared with OGTT were assessed. Results Twenty-four participants had abnormal glucose testing, including one participant (1.5%) who met criteria for diabetes mellitus and 23 participants (34%) who met criteria for impaired fasting glucose/IGT/prediabetes. More patients were identified as having dysglycemia by HbA1c than OGTT. Compared with OGTT, HbA1c had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 69% for diagnosing dysglycemia. Conclusions In adolescents with PCOS, HbA1c had moderate sensitivity and specificity for detecting dysglycemia compared with OGTT. Clinicians should be aware that both tests have benefits and limitations, and the optimal test for follow-up requires further study.Journal of Adolescent Health 07/2014; · 2.75 Impact Factor