Article

The NLRP12 Inflammasome Recognizes Yersinia pestis

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, UMass Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605, USA.
Immunity (Impact Factor: 19.75). 07/2012; 37(1):96-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.07.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is able to suppress production of inflammatory cytokines IL-18 and IL-1β, which are generated through caspase-1-activating nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing inflammasomes. Here, we sought to elucidate the role of NLRs and IL-18 during plague. Lack of IL-18 signaling led to increased susceptibility to Y. pestis, producing tetra-acylated lipid A, and an attenuated strain producing a Y. pseudotuberculosis-like hexa-acylated lipid A. We found that the NLRP12 inflammasome was an important regulator controlling IL-18 and IL-1β production after Y. pestis infection, and NLRP12-deficient mice were more susceptible to bacterial challenge. NLRP12 also directed interferon-γ production via induction of IL-18, but had minimal effect on signaling to the transcription factor NF-κB. These studies reveal a role for NLRP12 in host resistance against pathogens. Minimizing NLRP12 inflammasome activation may have been a central factor in evolution of the high virulence of Y. pestis.

0 Followers
 · 
158 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that orchestrates innate immune responses to infection and cell stress through activation of caspase-1 and maturation of inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18. Activation of the inflammasome during infection can be protective, but unregulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to non-pathogenic endogenous or exogenous stimuli can lead to unintended pathology. NLRP3 associates with mitochondria and mitochondrial molecules, and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to diverse stimuli requires cation flux, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species accumulation. It remains uncertain whether NLRP3 surveys mitochondrial integrity and senses mitochondrial damage, or whether mitochondria simply serve as a physical platform for inflammasome assembly. The structure of the active, caspase-1-processing NLRP3 inflammasome also requires further clarification, but recent studies describing the prion-like properties of ASC have advanced the understanding of how inflammasome assembly and caspase-1 activation occur while raising new questions regarding the propagation and resolution of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Here, we review the mechanisms and pathways regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, discuss emerging concepts in NLRP3 complex organization, and expose the knowledge gaps hindering a comprehensive understanding of NLRP3 activation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Immunological Reviews 05/2015; 265(1):35-52. DOI:10.1111/imr.12286 · 12.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pneumonic plague is the most rapid and lethal form of Yersinia pestis infection. Increasing evidence suggests that Y. pestis employs multiple levels of innate immune evasion and/or suppression to produce an early "pre-inflammatory" phase of pulmonary infection, after which the disease is highly inflammatory in the lung and 100% fatal. In this study, we show that IL-1β/IL-18 cytokine activation occurs early after bacteria enter the lung, and this activation eventually contributes to pulmonary inflammation and pathology during the later stages of infection. However, the inflammatory effects of IL-1β/IL-1-receptor ligation are not observed during this first stage of pneumonic plague. We show that Y. pestis also activates the induction of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and this activation likely contributes to the ability of Y. pestis to establish the initial pre-inflammatory phase of disease.
    PLoS Pathogens 03/2015; 11(3):e1004688. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004688 · 8.06 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammasome biology is one of the most exciting and rapidly growing areas in immunology. Over the past 10 years, inflammasomes have been recognized for their roles in the host defense against invading pathogens and in the development of cancer, auto-inflammatory, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Assembly of an inflammasome complex requires cytosolic sensing of pathogen-associated molecular patterns or danger-associated molecular patterns by a nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) or absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-like receptors (ALR). NLRs and ALRs engage caspase-1, in most cases requiring the adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC), to catalyze proteolytic cleavage of pro-interleukin-1β (pro-IL-1β) and pro-IL-18 and drive pyroptosis. Recent studies indicate that caspase-8, caspase-11, IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAK), and receptor-interacting protein (RIP) kinases contribute to inflammasome functions. In addition, post-translational modifications, including ubiquitination, deubiquitination, phosphorylation, and degradation control almost every aspect of inflammasome activities. Genetic studies indicate that mutations in NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 are linked with the development of auto-inflammatory diseases, enterocolitis, and cancer. Overall, these findings transform our understanding of the basic biology and clinical relevance of inflammasomes. In this review, we provide an overview of the latest development of inflammasome research and discuss how inflammasome activities govern health and disease. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Immunological Reviews 05/2015; 265(1):6-21. DOI:10.1111/imr.12296 · 12.91 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
1 Download