Estrogen regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics: implications for prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with a complex and progressive pathological phenotype characterized first by hypometabolism and impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics followed by pathological burden. Increasing evidence indicates an antecedent and potentially causal role of mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits and brain hypometabolism coupled with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress in AD pathogenesis. Compromised aerobic glycolysis pathway coupled with oxidative stress is first accompanied by a shift toward a ketogenic pathway that eventually progresses into fatty acid oxidation (FAO) pathways and leads to white matter degeneration and overproduction and mitochondrial accumulation of β-amyloid. Estrogen-induced signaling pathways converge upon the mitochondria to enhance mitochondrial function and to sustain aerobic glycolysis coupled with citric acid cycle-driven oxidative phosphorylation to potentiate ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) generation. In addition to potentiated mitochondrial bioenergetics, estrogen also enhances neural survival and health through maintenance of calcium homeostasis, promotion of antioxidant defense against free radicals, efficient cholesterol trafficking, and beta amyloid clearance. Significantly, the convergence of E2 mechanisms of action onto mitochondria is also a potential point of vulnerability when activated in diseased neurons that exacerbates degeneration through increased load on dysregulated calcium homeostasis. The "healthy cell bias of estrogen action" hypothesis examines the role that regulating mitochondrial function and bioenergetics play in promoting neural health and the mechanistic crossroads that lead to divergent outcomes following estrogen exposure. As the continuum of neurological health progresses from healthy to unhealthy, so too do the benefits of estrogen or hormone therapy.
SourceAvailable from: Irene MeesterFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2015; 7:2. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00002 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play a critical role in regulating cellular functions including bioenergetics, calcium homeostasis, redox signalling, and apoptotic cell death. Mitochondria are also essential to many aspects of neurodevelopment and neuronal functions. However, mitochondrial impairment may affect bioenergetics in the developing brain and alter critical neuronal processes leading to neurodevelopmental abnormalities.Schizophrenia is one of the chronic and severe neuropsychiatric disorders of neurodevelopmental origin. Immuno-inflammatory pathway is one of the widely appreciated mechanisms that has consistently been implicated in the neurodevelopmental origin of schizophrenia. However, the source of inflammation and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms leading to schizophrenia are yet to be fully ascertained. Recent understanding reveals that perturbation of mitochondrial network dynamics might lead to various nervous system disorders with inflammatory pathologies. Mitochondrial deficit, altered redox balance and chronic low-grade inflammation are evident in schizophrenia. It is hypothesized that oxidative/nitrosative stress responses due to mitochondrial dysfunctions might activate immuno-inflammatory pathways and subsequently lead to neuroprogressive changes in schizophrenia. Herein, we summarise the current understanding of molecular links between mitochondrial dysfunctions and pathogenesis of schizophrenia based on evidence from genomics, proteomics and imaging studies, which together support a role for mitochondrial impairment in the pathogenetic pathways of schizophrenia.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 11/2014; 48. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2014.11.005 · 10.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Kidney-tonifying recipe can reduce the accumulation of advanced glycation end products, prevent neuronal degeneration and improve cognitive functions in ovariectomized rats. Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts may dose-dependently inhibit non-enzymatic saccharification in vitro. This study aimed to examine the effect of Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae on advanced glycation end products and on learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae alcohol extracts (containing 1.5 g/kg crude drug) or 0.1% aminoguanidine for 12 weeks and behavioral testing was performed with the Y-electrical maze. This test revealed that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae and aminoguanidine could improve the learning and memory capabilities of ovariectomized rats. Results of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine reduced the accumulation of advanced glycation end products in the frontal cortex of ovariectomized rats, while increasing content in the blood and urine. Biochemical tests showed that treatment with Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae or aminoguanidine decreased superoxide dismutase activity in the serum and frontal cortex, and increased serum levels of glutathione peroxidase in ovariectomized rats. In addition, there was no apparent effect on malondialdehyde levels. These experimental findings indicate that Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae inhibits production of advanced glycation end products and its accumulation in brain tissue, and improves learning and memory capabilities in ovariectomized rats. These effects may be associated with an anti-oxidative action of the extract.Neural Regeneration Research 06/2013; 8(18):1644-54. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2013.18.002 · 0.23 Impact Factor