Cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar disorder: A study into personality, dysfunctional attitudes and attention bias in patients with bipolar disorder and their relatives
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Research in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar disorder is scarce and has provided mixed findings, possibly due to differences in current mood state. It is unclear whether alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes are only related to the depressive mood states of bipolar patients or also represent a vulnerability marker for the development of future (depressive) episodes. This was investigated in the current study. METHODS: Both implicit (attentional bias for emotional words) and explicit (dysfunctional attitudes and personality characteristics) measures of cognitive processes and attitudes were assessed in 77 bipolar patients with varying levels of depressive symptoms (depressed=17, euthymic n=60), their healthy first-degree relatives (n=39) and a healthy control group (n=61). Analyses of variance were used to investigate differences between groups. RESULTS: Mildly depressed patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated an attentional bias away from positive emotional words and showed increased dysfunctional attitudes and higher levels of neuroticism. Euthymic patients were largely comparable to healthy controls and only differed from controls in higher levels of neuroticism. Relatives were similar to controls on all measures, although they significantly differed from bipolar patients in displaying less neuroticism and more extraversion. LIMITATIONS: No firm conclusions regarding causality can be drawn from the associations that were found between cognitive processes and attitudes and the evolution of mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. CONCLUSION: Alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar patients appear to be mostly related to the expression of mood symptomatology rather than to the vulnerability for bipolar disorder.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana C. García-Blanco[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We examined whether the initial orienting, subsequent engagement, and overall allocation of attention are determined exogenously (i.e., by the affective valence of the stimulus) or endogenously (i.e., by the participant's mood) in the manic, depressive and euthymic episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Participants were asked to compare the affective valence of two pictures (happy/threatening/neutral [emotional] vs. neutral [control]) while their eye movements were recorded in a free-viewing task. Results revealed that the initial orienting was exogenously captured by emotional images relative to control images. Importantly, engagement and overall allocation were endogenously captured by threatening images relative to neutral images in BD patients, regardless of their episode-this effect did not occur in a group of healthy controls. The threat-related bias in BD, which occurs even at the early stages of information processing (i.e. attentional engagement), may reflect a vulnerability marker. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biological psychology 03/2015; 108. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2015.03.010 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined whether processing of emotional words impairs cognitive performance in acutely ill patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), with or without comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relative to healthy controls (HC). Forty youths with PBD without ADHD, 20 youths with PBD and ADHD, and 29 HC (mean age = 12.97 ± 3.13) performed a Synonym Matching task, where they decided which of two probe words was the synonym of a target word. The three words presented on each trial all had the same emotional valence, which could be negative, positive, or neutral. Relative to HC both PBD groups exhibited worse accuracy for emotional words relative to neutral ones. This effect was greater with negative words and observed regardless of whether PBD patients had comorbid ADHD. In the PBD group without ADHD, manic symptoms correlated negatively with accuracy for negative words, and positively with reaction time (RT) for all word types. Our findings suggest a greater disruptive effect of emotional valence in both PBD groups relative to HC, reflecting the adverse effect of altered emotion processing on cognitive function in PBD. Future studies including an ADHD group will help clarify how ADHD symptoms may affect emotional interference independently of PBD. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1-12).Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 02/2013; 19(5):1-12. DOI:10.1017/S135561771300012X · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background This study investigated the dynamics of cognitive control instability in methamphetamine (MA) abuse as well its relationship to substance induced psychiatric symptoms and drug use patterns. Methods We used an ex-Gaussian reaction time (RT) distribution to examine intra-individual variability (IIV) and excessively long RTs (tau) in an individual’s RT on a Stroop task in 30 currently drug abstinent (3 mos to 2 yrs) MA abusers compared to 27 non substance-abusing controls. All subjects underwent fMRI while performing the Stroop task, which allowed us to measure the relationship between IIV and tau to functional brain activity. Results Elevated IIV in the MA compared to the control group did not reach significance; however, when the MA group was divided into those subjects who had experienced MA-induced psychosis (MAP+; n=19) and those who had not (MAP-; n=11), the MAP+ group had higher average IIV compared to the other groups (p<0.03). In addition, although controls displayed a relationship between IIV and conflict-related brain activity in bilateral PFC, such that increased IIV was associated with increased activity, the MAP+ group displayed this relationship in right PFC only, perhaps reflecting elevated vigilance in the MAP+ group. Greater IIV did not correlate with severity of use or months MA abstinent. No group differences emerged in tau values. Conclusions These results suggest increased cognitive instability in those MA-dependent subjects who had experienced MA-induced psychosisBiological Psychiatry 08/2014; 77(5). DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2014.07.028 · 9.47 Impact Factor