Cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar disorder: A study into personality, dysfunctional attitudes and attention bias in patients with bipolar disorder and their relatives.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Research in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar disorder is scarce and has provided mixed findings, possibly due to differences in current mood state. It is unclear whether alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes are only related to the depressive mood states of bipolar patients or also represent a vulnerability marker for the development of future (depressive) episodes. This was investigated in the current study. METHODS: Both implicit (attentional bias for emotional words) and explicit (dysfunctional attitudes and personality characteristics) measures of cognitive processes and attitudes were assessed in 77 bipolar patients with varying levels of depressive symptoms (depressed=17, euthymic n=60), their healthy first-degree relatives (n=39) and a healthy control group (n=61). Analyses of variance were used to investigate differences between groups. RESULTS: Mildly depressed patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated an attentional bias away from positive emotional words and showed increased dysfunctional attitudes and higher levels of neuroticism. Euthymic patients were largely comparable to healthy controls and only differed from controls in higher levels of neuroticism. Relatives were similar to controls on all measures, although they significantly differed from bipolar patients in displaying less neuroticism and more extraversion. LIMITATIONS: No firm conclusions regarding causality can be drawn from the associations that were found between cognitive processes and attitudes and the evolution of mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. CONCLUSION: Alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar patients appear to be mostly related to the expression of mood symptomatology rather than to the vulnerability for bipolar disorder.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is very limited data about the cognitive structure of bipolar depression when compared to unipolar depression. The aim of the study was to look into the differences between unipolar and bipolar depressed patients regarding their cognitive structure in view of Beck's cognitive theory. METHODS: In this study, 70 bipolar patients during a depressive episode, 189 unipolar depressed patients and 120 healthy subjects were recruited. The participants were interviewed by using a structured clinical diagnostic scale. To evaluate the cognitive structure differences, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) were used. RESULTS: We found that on the mean ATQ total score, the unipolar depressed patients scored significantly higher (92.9±22.7) than both the bipolar depressed patients (73.2±24.7) and the healthy subjects (47.1±19.6), even after controlling for all confounding factors, e.g. gender, marital status, depressive symptom severity (F = 157.872, p<0.001). The bipolar depressed patients also scored significantly higher on the mean ATQ total score than the healthy controls. On the mean DAS total score, and on the mean score of its subscale of need for approval, the bipolar depressed patients scored (152.8±21.2 and 48.2±7.4, respectively) significantly higher than both the unipolar depressed patients (160.9±29.0 and 51.9±9.7, respectively) and the healthy subjects (127.9±32.8 and 40.2±12.2, respectively), even after controlling for any confounding factor (F=45.803 [p<0.001] and F=43.206 [p<0.001], respectively). On the mean score of the perfectionistic attitude subscale of the DAS, the depressed groups scored significantly higher than the healthy subjects, but they did not seem to separate from each other (F=41.599, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These results may help enhance the understanding of the potentially unique psychotherapeutic targets and the underlying cognitive theory of bipolar depression.Comprehensive Psychiatry 04/2013; 54(7):740-749. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined whether processing of emotional words impairs cognitive performance in acutely ill patients with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD), with or without comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), relative to healthy controls (HC). Forty youths with PBD without ADHD, 20 youths with PBD and ADHD, and 29 HC (mean age = 12.97 ± 3.13) performed a Synonym Matching task, where they decided which of two probe words was the synonym of a target word. The three words presented on each trial all had the same emotional valence, which could be negative, positive, or neutral. Relative to HC both PBD groups exhibited worse accuracy for emotional words relative to neutral ones. This effect was greater with negative words and observed regardless of whether PBD patients had comorbid ADHD. In the PBD group without ADHD, manic symptoms correlated negatively with accuracy for negative words, and positively with reaction time (RT) for all word types. Our findings suggest a greater disruptive effect of emotional valence in both PBD groups relative to HC, reflecting the adverse effect of altered emotion processing on cognitive function in PBD. Future studies including an ADHD group will help clarify how ADHD symptoms may affect emotional interference independently of PBD. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1-12).Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 02/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor