Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.26). 07/2012; 12(1):566. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-12-566
Source: PubMed


Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda.

A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage.

About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9), being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6) and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8), whereas area of residence and mother’s socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children.

Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12–23 months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery.

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Available from: Belachew Etana, Feb 11, 2015
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    • "This may be due to the fact that the small sample size they used [8] [20] [29] [33] and the time in the study was conducted by itself may be a factor [23]. Nevertheless, the study finding is consistent with the study conducted in central Ethiopia by Etana et al. (2012) and the study conducted in Nigeria by Aremu et al. (2010), in which both studies found non-significant association between likelihood of childhood full immunization and place of residence [17] [33] and this needs further investigation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Expanded program on immunization is one of the most successful and cost effective public health interventions that protect children against vaccine preventable diseases. The full childhood immunization coverage in many parts of Ethiopia is far from optimal. Hence, the main objective of this study was to assess factors associated with childhood full immunization in Ethiopia. Methods The data source for this study was the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel regression analysis techniques were used to conduct the analysis. Accordingly a two level multilevel regression analysis model was built with individuals (level 1) nested with in communities (level 2). Results A total of 4983 children aged 12–59 months nested within 520 clusters were included in the analysis. According to the analysis results, in the year 2011, 26 % of children less than 5 years old were fully immunized in Ethiopia. Being born at health institutions, higher level of maternal education, media exposure, region of residence and residing in communities possessing higher maternal antenatal care services utilization were positively associated with childhood full immunization. In contrary to this, the number children aged less than 5 years in the household was negatively associated with childhood full immunization. The random effect results indicated that 21 % of the variation among the communities was due to community level factors. Conclusions It was found that various individual and contextual factors were associated with childhood full immunization. In addition, significant community level variation remains after having controlled individual and community level factors which is an indicative of a need for further research on community level factors. Hence, utilizing multilevel modeling in determining the effect of both individual and contextual level factors simultaneously had brought an important output which may help planners, policy and decision makers to emphasize on both individuals and communities in which they live.
    BMC Public Health 09/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-2315-z · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "In agreement with the studies carried out in Amibara district of Ethiopia [14] and Bangladesh [26], the present study also revealed that mother’s/caregivers’ TT immunization acceptance was found to be the most important predictor for full immunization of children. Mothers/caregivers who took any TT vaccine during pregnancy were 2.43 times more likely to fully vaccinate their children than mothers/caregivers who took none (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.56, 3.77). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Immunization coverage in Ethiopia is less than the herd immunity level desired to prevent the spread of eight target diseases targeted by the World Health Organization’s Expanded Program of Immunization. In particular, the Somali region of the country still has by far the lowest level of immunization coverage. The objective of this study was to measure the immunization coverage of 12–23 months old children and associated factors in the urban and rural areas of Jigjiga district. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted in 582 households with 12–23 months old children in two urban and four rural wards. The data were collected from mothers or caregivers through interviews based on pre-tested and structured questionnaires and from the review of vaccination cards. Data were processed using SPSS version 16. To identify factors associated with the immunization status of children, bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were worked out and the Hoshmer and Lemeshow’s goodness-of-fit was used to assess the fitness of multiple logistic regression model. Results Three–fourth (74.6%) of the children surveyed were ever vaccinated, whereas 36.6% were fully vaccinated. The immunization coverage rate from card assessment for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin was 41.8%, while for Oral Polio Vaccine Zero, Oral Polio Vaccine One /Pentavalent1, Oral Polio Vaccine Two /Pentavalent2, Oral Polio Vaccine Three /Pentavalent3, and measles were 10.4%, 41.1%, 33.9%, 27.5%, and 24.9%, respectively. Maternal literacy (AOR = 3.06, 95% CI = 1.64, 5.71), Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.56, 3.77), place of delivery (AOR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.24, 3.28), place of residence (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.33, 3.13), and household visits by health workers (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.17, 3.16), were found to be factors significantly associated with full immunization in the multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions The overall immunization coverage was found to be low. Hence, to increase the immunization coverage and reduce the incidences of missed opportunity, delivery in the health institution should be promoted, the outreach activities of the health institutions should be strengthened and greater utilization of health services by mothers should be encouraged.
    BMC Public Health 08/2014; 14(1):865. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-865 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Only 6.5% did not take any vaccine at all. The percentage of not immunized children is significantly lower than the figures of nationwide (15%) and Ambo district (23.7%) [7,14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Immunization averts an estimated 2 to 3 million deaths every year globally. In Ethiopia only quarter of children are fully immunized; the rest are remained at risk for vaccine-preventable mortality. To increase the immunization, its coverage and predictors has to be identified. This study has measured immunization coverage and identified the predictors. Methods Cross-sectional community based study has been conducted within 630 age 12-23 months children in 15 districts of Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district, Southern Ethiopia in March 2013. Census was done to identify eligible children. The 2005 world health organization expanded program of immunization cluster sampling method has been used. Data were collected using semi-structured pretested Amharic version questionnaire by interviewing index children's mothers/caretakers, copying from vaccine card and observing BCG vaccine scar. Data were processed using SPSS version 16. Associations between dependent and independent variables has been assessed and presented using three consecutive logistic regression models. Result: Nearly three fourth (73.2%) of children in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch Zuria district were fully immunized. The rest 20.3% were partially immunized and 6.5% received no vaccine. Mother education, mothers' perception to accessibility of vaccines, mothers' knowledge to vaccine schedule of their site, place of delivery and living altitude were independent predictors of children immunization status. Conclusion Expanded program of immunization (EPI) coverage at Arba Minch town and Arba Minch Zuria district is better than the national immunization coverage but still below the goal. Educating mother, promoting institution delivery could help to maintain and enhance current immunization coverage. More emphasis should be given to the highland areas of the area.
    BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(BMC Public Health 2014, 14:464). DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-464 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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