[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations in glucose and lipid metabolism, lactic acidemia, bone disorders, and abnormal body fat distribution have been recognized recently as frequent complications associated with HIV-1 infection and potent antiretroviral therapy, but limited data are available regarding the appropriate management of these disorders. These recommendations were developed to guide physicians actively involved in HIV care in the management of metabolic complications that occur primarily within the context of potent antiretroviral therapy.
A 12-member panel representing international expertise in HIV-1 patient care, antiretroviral therapy, and endocrine and metabolic disorders was selected in the spring of 2000 by the International AIDS Society-USA, a not-for-profit physician education organization. Panel members met in closed meetings beginning in May 2000. All work was funded by the International AIDS Society-USA; the panel members are not compensated for their participation.
The panel reviewed published results of clinical, epidemiologic, and basic science studies and data and abstracts presented at research conferences, primarily from 1997 to 2002. The panel also considered studies of the pathophysiology and treatment of similar metabolic abnormalities in noninfected persons. Emphasis was placed on results from prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials when available.
For each metabolic complication, 1 or more member(s) reviewed and presented all available evidence to the panel, and then wrote a summary of the evidence and preliminary recommendations. Final recommendations were determined by full group consensus. The summaries were combined into a single working document and all panel members edited and approved all subsequent drafts.
Carefully controlled studies to determine the incidence, etiology, risk factors, and most appropriate treatments for metabolic complications in HIV-1 infection are urgently needed. In the absence of these data, and to prevent acute illness and mitigate long-term risks, the panel recommends routine assessment and monitoring of glucose and lipid levels and assessment and monitoring of lactic acidemia and bone abnormalities if clinical signs or symptoms are detected. With the exception of body fat distribution abnormalities, specific treatments for these complications are also recommended. Successful long-term antiretroviral therapy will require diligent monitoring and preemptive treatment of metabolic complications to optimize the risk-benefit ratio of antiretroviral therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited data exists regarding the effect of chronic HIV infection on the liver. We sought to characterize the hepatic risks of HIV infection, immunodeficiency, and cumulative use of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Adult HIV infected and 10:1 age-matched and sex-matched HIV-uninfected individuals were followed for incident hepatic dysfunction or hepatic dysfunction-related death. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to obtain incident rate ratios, adjusting for multiple hepatic risk factors including alcohol/drug abuse, hepatitis B and C, and diabetes.
We identified 20,775 HIV-infected and 215,158 HIV-uninfected individuals. HIV-infected individuals had a significantly greater overall risk compared with HIV-uninfected individuals of both hepatic dysfunction and hepatic dysfunction-related death. The highest risk was seen in patients with low CD4 cell counts not on ART [adjusted rate ratio of hepatic dysfunction-related death 59.4; (95% confidence interval: 39.3 to 89.7), P < 0.001; hepatic dysfunction, adjusted rate ratio 15.7 (95% confidence interval: 11.4 to 21.6), P < 0.001]. In an HIV-infected only model, factors that increased risk included low CD4 cell count, high HIV RNA level, alcohol/drug abuse, hepatitis B or C coinfection, and diabetes. Longer cumulative exposure to ART did not increase risk, regardless of therapy class.
HIV-infected individuals have a higher risk of hepatic dysfunction and hepatic dysfunction-related death compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, even with adjustment for known hepatic risk factors. Hepatic outcomes were associated with lower CD4+ T-cell counts but not with longer cumulative ART exposure. These findings provide indirect evidence supporting early use of ART to reduce the risk for hepatic-related complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As newer methods of management are made available, and accessible, survival rates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasing. This means that chronic, metabolic complications of HIV are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, as acute morbidity is controlled. Management of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is gradually expanding to include these chronic and metabolic complications of the disease, and the adverse effects associated with its treatments, including diabetes. Unfortunately, no guidelines are available to help the medical practitioners choose appropriate therapy for patients with these conditions. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HIV. The development of these guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. These guidelines and associated review of literature represent a compilation of available knowledge regarding rational management of diabetes in HIV. Patients of diabetes with concomitant HIV infection are managed optimally with insulin therapy and judicious use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with suitable alternatives is also recommended. These guidelines should prove helpful to physicians, not only in South Asia, but also across the globe, while managing patients with coexistent HIV and diabetes.
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