Mechanism of Interdigestive Migrating Motor Complex

Department of Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin and Zablocki VA Medical Center, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility (Impact Factor: 2.7). 07/2012; 18(3):246-57. DOI: 10.5056/jnm.2012.18.3.246
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Migrating motor complex (MMC) is well characterized by the appearance of gastrointestinal contractions in the interdigestive state. This review article discussed the mechanism of gastrointestinal MMC. Luminal administration of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) initiates duodenal phase II followed by gastrointestinal phase III with a concomitant increase of plasma motilin release in conscious dogs. Duodenal 5-HT concentration is increased during gastric phase II and phase III. Intravenous infusion of motilin increases luminal 5-HT content and induces gastrointestinal phase III. 5-HT(4) antagonists significantly inhibits both of gastric and intestinal phase III, while 5-HT(3) antagonists inhibited only gastric phase III. These suggest that gastrointestinal MMC cycle is mediated via the interaction between motilin and 5-HT by the positive feedback mechanism. Gastric MMC is regulated via vagus, 5-HT(3/4) receptors and motilin, while intestinal MMC is regulated via intrinsic primary afferent neurons and 5-HT(4) receptors. Stress is highly associated with the pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. Acoustic stress attenuates gastric phase III without affecting intestinal phase III in conscious dogs, via reduced vagal activity and increased sympathetic activity. It has been shown that subset of functional dyspepsia patients show reduced vagal activity and impaired gastric phase III. The physiological importance of gastric MMC is a mechanical and chemical cleansing of the empty stomach in preparation for the next meal. The impaired gastric MMC may aggravate dyspeptic symptoms following a food ingestion. Thus, maintaining gastric MMC in the interdigestive state is an important factor to prevent the postprandial dyspeptic symptoms.

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