Epidemiology of United States High School Sports-Related Fractures, 2008-09 to 2010-11
ABSTRACT High school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually, many of which are fractures. Fractures can severely affect athletes physically, emotionally, and financially and should be targeted with focused prevention methods.
Patterns and primary mechanisms of fractures differ by sport and gender.
Descriptive epidemiology study.
High school sports-related injury data were collected from academic years 2008-09 to 2010-11 for 18 sports and from 2009-10 to 2010-11 for 2 additional sports. We used linear regression to describe annual fracture rate trends and calculated fractures rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs).
From 2008-09 to 2010-11, certified athletic trainers reported a total of 21,251 injuries during 11,544,455 athlete exposures (AEs), of which 2103 (9.9%) were fractures, with an overall rate of 1.82 fractures per 10,000 AEs. Fracture rates were highest in football (4.37 per 10,000 AE), boys' ice hockey (3.08), and boys' lacrosse (2.59). Boys sustained 79.1% of all fractures, and the overall rates of fractures were greater in boys' sports than in girls' sports for competition (RR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.45-3.24) and practice (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.07-2.86). The most commonly fractured body sites were the hand/finger (32.1%), lower leg (10.1%), and wrist (9.5%). Overall, 17.2% of fractures required surgery, which was higher than for all other injuries combined (IPR, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.81-3.52). The most common mechanism of fracture involved contact with another player (45.5%). Using linear regression, we found the proportion of all injuries that were fractures was inversely correlated with the athlete's age (P = .02) but was not correlated with the athletes' age- and gender-adjusted body mass index.
Fractures are a significant problem for high school athletes. Targeted preventive interventions should be implemented to reduce the burdens these injuries cause the athletes.
- SourceAvailable from: Robert J Butler
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- "American football traditionally has one of the highest injury rates in comparison with other team sports.8,9,20 Risk factors for injury during football that have been previously identified include competition level,8,19 time of season,8 playing surface,14 player position,19 playing experience,21 and prior injury.19 "
ABSTRACT: Background:Field expedient screening tools that can identify individuals at an elevated risk for injury are needed to minimize time loss in American football players. Previous research has suggested that poor dynamic balance may be associated with an elevated risk for injury in athletes; however, this has yet to be examined in college football players.Hypothesis:To determine if dynamic balance deficits are associated with an elevated risk of injury in collegiate football players. It was hypothesized that football players with lower performance and increased asymmetry in dynamic balance would be at an elevated risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury.Study Design:Prospective cohort study.Methods:Fifty-nine collegiate American football players volunteered for this study. Demographic information, injury history, and dynamic balance testing performance were collected, and noncontact lower extremity injuries were recorded over the course of the season. Receiver operator characteristic curves were calculated based on performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), including composite score and asymmetry, to determine the population-specific risk cut-off point. Relative risk was then calculated based on these variables, as well as previous injury.Results:A cut-off point of 89.6% composite score on the SEBT optimized the sensitivity (100%) and specificity (71.7%). A college football player who scored below 89.6% was 3.5 times more likely to get injured.Conclusion:Poor performance on the SEBT may be related to an increased risk for sustaining a noncontact lower extremity injury over the course of a competitive American football season.Clinical Relevance:College football players should be screened preseason using the SEBT to identify those at an elevated risk for injury based upon dynamic balance performance to implement injury mitigation strategies to this specific subgroup of athletes.Sports Health A Multidisciplinary Approach 09/2013; 5(5):417-422. DOI:10.1177/1941738113498703
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ABSTRACT: Approximately 7.6 million high school students in the United States participate in sports. Although most sport-related injuries in adolescents are considered minor emergencies, life-threatening illnesses or injuries may occur, such as sudden cardiac arrest, heat stroke, status asthmaticus and exercise-induced asthma, catastrophic brain injuries, cervical spine injuries, heat- and cold-related illness, blunt chest/abdominal injuries, and extremity fractures resulting in compartment syndrome. Emergency preparedness in athletics involves the identification of and planning for medical services to promote the safety of the athlete, to limit injury, and to provide medical care at the site of practice or competition. Several national organizations have published guidelines for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics. Our article reviews guidelines for emergency preparedness put forth by the Sideline Preparedness collaboration (comprised of 6 major professional associations, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons, American College of Sports Medicine, American Medical Society for Sports Medicine, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and American Osteopathic Academy of Sports Medicine), the National Athletic Trainers' Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on School Health, and the American Heart Association. Additionally, we review published data examining compliance of US high schools with these recommendations for emergency preparedness in school-based athletics, determine deficiencies, and provide recommendations for improvement based on these deficiencies.The Physician and sportsmedicine 05/2013; 41(2):21-31. DOI:10.3810/psm.2013.05.2008 · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Injuries to the hand and wrist are commonly encountered in athletes. Decisions regarding the most appropriate treatment, the timing of treatment, and return to play are made while balancing desires to resume athletic activities and sound orthopedic principles. Little recognition in the literature exists regarding the need for a different approach when treating these injuries in elite athletes and the timing to return to play. This study explored the complexities of treating hand and wrist injuries in the elite athlete. Thirty-seven consultant hand surgeons for teams in the National Football League, National Basketball Association, and Major League Baseball completed a brief electronic survey about the management of 10 common hand injuries. Notable variability existed in responses for initial management, return to protected play, and return to unprotected play for all injuries, aside from near consensus agreement (94%) that elite athletes with stable proximal interphalangeal dislocations could immediately return to protected play. Basketball surgeons were less likely to recommend early return to protected play than non-basketball surgeons. Baseball surgeons were more likely to recommend early unprotected play after scaphoid fixation. Football surgeons were more likely to recommend earlier return to protected play after thumb ulnar collateral ligament injuries, whereas basketball surgeons were less likely to recommend earlier return to protected play. This study demonstrated wide variability in how consultant hand surgeons approach the treatment of hand and wrist injuries. The findings emphasize the need to individually tailor treatment decisions to the patient's desires and demands, particularly in high-performance athletes.Orthopedics 06/2013; 36(6):815-9. DOI:10.3928/01477447-20130523-30 · 0.98 Impact Factor