Alantolactone induces apoptosis in glioblastoma cells via GSH depletion, ROS generation, and mitochondrial dysfunction

Central Research Laboratory, Jilin University Bethune Second Hospital, Changchun, People's Republic of China.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life (Impact Factor: 3.14). 09/2012; 64(9):783-94. DOI: 10.1002/iub.1068
Source: PubMed


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults. Despite concerted efforts to improve current therapies, the prognosis of glioblastoma remains very poor. Alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone compound, has been reported to exhibit antifungal, antibacteria, antihelminthic, and anticancer properties. In this study, we found that alantolactone effectively inhibits growth and triggers apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The alantolactone-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, cardiolipin oxidation, upregulation of p53 and Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (caspase 9 and 3), and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis and GSH depletion were effectively inhibited or abrogated by a thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, whereas other antioxidant (polyethylene glycol (PEG)-catalase and PEG-superoxide-dismutase) did not prevent apoptosis and GSH depletion. Alantolactone treatment inhibited the translocation of NF-κB into nucleus; however, NF-κB inhibitor, SN50 failed to potentiate alantolactone-induced apoptosis indicating that alantolactone induces NF-κB-independent apoptosis in glioma cells. These findings suggest that the sensitivity of tumor cells to alantolactone appears to results from GSH depletion and ROS production. Furthermore, our in vivo toxicity study demonstrated that alantolactone did not induce significant hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice. Therefore, alantolactone may become a potential lead compound for future development of antiglioma therapy.

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Available from: Dr-Muhammad Khan, Oct 30, 2014
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    • "In addition, our findings also demonstrated the sensitivity of tumor cells to alantolactone that appears as a result of GSH depletion and ROS production [49]. Further studies reveal that apoptosis induction more or less depends on many factors like increase in ROS, oxidation of cardiolipin, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and release of cytochrome c [49]. Khan et al. [52] have explained the involvement of ROS in isoalantolactonemediated apoptosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alantolactone and isoalantolactone, main bioactive compounds that are present in many medicinal plants such as Inula helenium, L. Inula japonica, Aucklandia lappa, Inula racemosa, and Radix inulae, have been found to have various pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties, with no significant toxicity. Recently, the anticancer activity of alantolactone and isoalantolactone has been extensively investigated. Here, our aim is to review their natural sources and their anticancer activity with specific emphasis on mechanism of actions, by which these compounds act on apoptosis pathways. Based on the literature and also on our previous results, alantolactone and isoalantolactone induce apoptosis by targeting multiple cellular signaling pathways that are frequently deregulated in cancers and suggest that their simultaneous targeting by these compounds could result in efficacious and selective killing of cancer cells. This review suggests that alantolactone and isoalantolactone are potential promising anticancer candidates, but additional studies and clinical trials are required to determine their specific intracellular sites of actions and derivative targets in order to fully understand the mechanisms of therapeutic effects to further validate in cancer chemotherapy.
    The Scientific World Journal 10/2013; 2013(5):248532. DOI:10.1155/2013/248532 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    • "Alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone compound, was found to effectively inhibit growth and triggering apoptosis in glioblastoma cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner. The alantolactone-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation (Khan et al., 2012). In order to assess the neuroprotective properties of plant extracts, prepared, from herbal drugs commonly used in traditional Mediterranean medicine, our attention has been paid to bay leaves. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the course of a bioactivity screening of Mediterranean plants, the assessment of neuroprotective properties of Laurus nobilis L. was of interest. Dried leaves were extracted by sonication using CHCl3 as solvent. The CHCl3 parental extract (CHCl3-pe) was fractionated to yield CHCl3 (LnC-1), EtOAc (LnC-2), MeOH (LnC-3) fractions. Each fraction underwent an extensive screening towards human neuroblastoma (SK-N-BE(2)-C, and SH-SY5Y) and rat glioma (C6) cell lines. MTT and SRB cytotoxicity tests were performed. The effect on the plasma membrane integrity was evaluated by assessment of LDH release. The caspase-3 activation enzyme and DNA fragmentation were also evaluated. The oxidant/antioxidant ability of all the extracts were evaluated using different methods. Furthermore, a metabolite profiling of the investigated extracts was carried out by GC-EI-MS. CHCl3-pe contained terpenes, allylphenols, and α-tocopherol. Dehydrocostus lactone was the main constituent. As result of the fractionation technique, the LnC-1 extract was mainly composed of α-tocopherol, whereas the LnC-2 fraction was enriched in guaiane and eudesmane terpenes. The most cytotoxic LnC-2 fraction induced apoptosis; it was ineffective in preventing in vitro free radicals production. Overall, the experimental results support a possible role of LnC-2 preparation as a chemopreventive agent for neuronal cells or other cells of the CNS.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 10/2013; 62. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.09.029 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion by alantolactone remained largely unknown. Furthermore, we showed that alantolactone did not induce hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice [15]. Additionally, Butturini et al. showed that GSH depletion is involved in the inhibition of STAT3 activation [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) constitutively expresses in human liver cancer cells and has been implicated in apoptosis resistance and tumorigenesis. Alantolactone, a sesquiterpene lactone, has been shown to possess anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines. In our previous report, we showed that alantolactone induced apoptosis in U87 glioblastoma cells via GSH depletion and ROS generation. However, the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion remained unexplored. The present study was conducted to envisage the molecular mechanism of alantolactone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells by focusing on the molecular mechanism of GSH depletion and its effect on STAT3 activation. We found that alantolactone induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis was found to be associated with GSH depletion, inhibition of STAT3 activation, ROS generation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation, and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. This alantolactone-induced apoptosis and GSH depletion were effectively inhibited or abrogated by a thiol antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). The data demonstrate clearly that intracellular GSH plays a central role in alantolactone-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Thus, alantolactone may become a lead chemotherapeutic candidate for the treatment of liver cancer.
    03/2013; 2013(9):719858. DOI:10.1155/2013/719858
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