The dried blood spot (DBS) specimens have been successfully employed for the large-scale diagnostics of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency as an easy to collect and transport alternative to plasma/serum. In the present study we propose a fast, efficient, and cost effective protocol of DNA extraction from dried blood spot (DBS) samples that provides sufficient quantity and quality of DNA and effectively eliminates any natural PCR inhibitors, allowing for successful AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. DNA extracted from 84 DBS samples from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was genotyped for AAT deficiency variants by real-time PCR. The results of DBS AAT genotyping were validated by serum IEF phenotyping and AAT concentration measurement. The proposed protocol allowed successful DNA extraction from all analyzed DBS samples. Both quantity and quality of DNA were sufficient for further real-time PCR and, if necessary, for genetic sequence analysis. A 100% concordance between AAT DBS genotypes and serum phenotypes in positive detection of two major deficiency S- and Z- alleles was achieved. Both assays, DBS AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and serum AAT phenotyping by IEF, positively identified PI*S and PI*Z allele in 8 out of the 84 (9.5%) and 16 out of 84 (19.0%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed protocol noticeably reduces the costs and the hand-on-time of DBS samples preparation providing genomic DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for further real-time PCR or genetic sequence analysis. Consequently, it is ideally suited for large-scale AAT deficiency screening programs and should be method of choice.
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α(1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency leads to deterioration of the lungs that can be prevented with diagnosis and treatment. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis is the current biochemical gold standard for detecting AAT deficiency variants but involves complex interpretation. Variant AAT samples were collected over a 2-year period. Stability of AAT for phenotype determination was assessed in whole blood, dried blood spots, and dried serum spots. A compendium displaying 13 common and 5 rare AAT phenotypes was created, and a detailed methodology describing how to recognize AAT banding patterns and interpret a rare phenotype accompanied these visual data. AAT was stable for IEF phenotype analysis for at least 1 week in whole blood and for 24 hours on dried serum spots. In conclusion, a reference compendium of known AAT phenotypes was established that can serve as a resource for interpreting AAT phenotypes.
American Journal of Clinical Pathology 02/2013; 139(2):184-91. DOI:10.1309/AJCP6XBK8ULZXWFP · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inherited alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is one of the three most common genetic disorders in Caucasians. It considerably increases the risk of progressive obstructive lung diseases, mostly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has also been suggested that AAT deficiency might be instrumental vasculitis associated with the anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (cANCA) and subsequent lung tissue injury.
We present the results from a pilot study involving 51 patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (GPA), 43 of whom were cANCA positive. The control group consisted of 658 individuals. AAT blood concentration assessment by nephelometry, phenotyping by isoelectrofocusing and real-time PCR genotyping were performed.
Deficiency alleles PI*Z and PI*S were detected in 3 (5.88%) and in 2 patients (3.92%) with GPA, respectively. All of them were cANCA positive. In the controls, PI*Z was observed in 2.8% while PI*S in 1.5% of cases. Accordingly, the increased incidence of main deficiency alleles was demonstrated in GPA, and particularly in cANCA+GPA patients, when compared to the controls. The estimated frequency for PI*Z in GPA, cANCA+GPA patients and controls was, respectively, 29.4/1000, 34.9/1000 and 13.7/1000, whereas for PI*S it was 19.2/1000, 23.2/10,00 and 7.6/1000. However, the observed differences did not reach statistical significance due to the considerable size disproportion between groups. CONSCLUSIONS: We believe that our preliminary data confirm the clinical importance of AAT deficiency in GPA patients and the need to screen for AAT deficiency alleles. The study is on-going.
Pneumonologia i alergologia polska: organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Ftyzjopneumonologicznego, Polskiego Towarzystwa Alergologicznego, i Instytutu Gruzlicy i Chorob Pluc 06/2013; 81(4):319-22.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) targeted screening program, together with the National Registry, were established in Poland in 2010 soon after the AATD diagnostics became available. Between 2010 and 2014 a total of 2525 samples were collected from respiratory patients countrywide; 55 patients with severe AAT deficiency or rare mutations were identified and registered, including 36 PiZZ subjects (65%). The majority of AATD patients were diagnosed with COPD (40%) or emphysema (7%), but also with bronchial asthma (16%) and bronchiectasis (13%). Therefore, the registry has proved instrumental in setting-up the AATD-dedicated network of respiratory medical centres in Poland. Since augmentation therapy is not reimbursed in our country, the smoking cessation guidance, optimal pharmacotherapy of respiratory symptoms as well the early detection, and effective treatment of exacerbations is absolutely essential.