Dietary acculturation and body composition predict American Hmong children's blood pressure.
ABSTRACT Determine how dietary acculturation, anthropometric measures (height, weight, circumferences, and skinfolds), body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratios (WHRs) are associated with blood pressure (BP) measures in Hmong children living in Minnesota.
Acculturation was measured using responses to questions regarding language usage, social connections, and diet. Dietary assessment was completed using the multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall method on two different days. Anthropometric and BP measurement were taken using standard procedures, and BMI and WHR were calculated. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and stepwise regression analyses.
Using stepwise regression analysis, hip circumference (HC) predicted boys' systolic (S)BP (R(2) = 0.55). For girls' SBP, mid-upper arm circumference, WHR, low calcium consumption, and height percentile jointly explained 41% of the total variation. Mid upper arm circumference (MAC) and carbohydrate consumption predicted 35% of the variance for boys' diastolic (D)BP, and HC, dairy consumption, and calcium intake predicted 31% of the total variance for girls' DBP. Responses to dietary acculturation questions revealed between group differences for breakfast with half of the younger Born-Thailand/Laos (Born-T/L) consuming mostly Hmong food, while at dinner Born-US consumed a mixed diet and Born-T/L were more likely to consume Hmong food.
Dietary acculturation and body composition predict Hmong children's BP.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to characterize western food adopters among Nepalese women and to investigate whether caste and class play an important role as a barrier to food adoption, thus limiting access to the globalizing market. It was hypothesized that women who consumed and prepared above average amounts of western foods would be taller and heavier. METHODS: A convenience sample of 508 Nepalese women of mixed castes, 18-60 years, was purposefully recruited. A Food Adoption Instrument was developed, tested, and used to assess the consumption of western foods. Women were grouped as western food adopters (≥12.5)-those consuming equal or more western food than Nepalese foods and western food non-adopters (≤12.5). Using student t-tests, sample characteristics and body mass index (BMI) were compared between western food adopters and non-western food adopters. RESULTS: Nearly a quarter of the women identified as western food adopters (n = 118) and 76% identified as western food non-adopters (n = 399). Using student t-test analysis, stepwise regression, and Pearson correlation analyses, it was found that western food adopters were significantly younger (P < 0.000), better educated (P < 0.000), had fewer children (P < 0.003), had higher incomes (P < 0.000), and watched more TV (P < 0.000) than western food non-adopters. They were taller and had lower BMIs than their western food non-adopter counterparts. Caste was also associated with western food adoption. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of education and low paying jobs appear to prevent access to the globalizing food system, suggesting that the centuries old sociopolitical and caste infrastructure indirectly prevents western food adoption for those failing to achieve financial security. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Human Biology 01/2013; · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This project investigated influences (environmental, personal, and behavioral) on body mass index (BMI) and acculturation of Hmong children born in the United States (US) using the social cognitive theory as the theoretical framework. Using formative information from 12 child focus groups (n = 68) and a review of the literature, a quantitative survey was developed and administered to Hmong children (n = 300) ≥ 9 ≤ 18 years-old. Heights, weights, and acculturation level were measured. B-US(1) were raised in the US and 9-13 years-old (n = 144) and B-US(2) were raised in the US and 14-18 years-old (n = 156). Approximately 50 % of children were classified as overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 85th percentile). Across age and gender sub-groups, questions from the environmental construct appeared to be the most predictive of variances in BMI percentiles (50-60 %). In contrast, acculturation scores were equally predicted by environmental, behavioral, and personal constructs for age and gender sub-groups. Sum acculturation score was significantly higher for B-US(2) compared to B-US(1), with B-US(2) being more acculturated in language use and thought, overall dietary acculturation, and foods eaten at lunch. The high prevalence of obesity in Hmong children suggests that future studies investigate factors influencing obesity to identify the most effective method to reduce/prevent this problem. In particular, acculturation level of the child should be assessed to determine changed dietary behavior and possible risk for obesity.Maternal and Child Health Journal 02/2013; · 2.24 Impact Factor