Temporal Trends in Cause of Death Among Swedish and US Men with Prostate Cancer.
ABSTRACT Background A growing proportion of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer detected through prostate-specific antigen testing are dying from causes other than prostate cancer. Temporal trends in specific causes of death among prostate cancer patients have not been well described. Methods We analyzed causes of death among all incident prostate cancer cases recorded in the nationwide Swedish Cancer Registry (1961-2008; n = 210 112) and in the US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (1973-2008; n = 490 341). We calculated the cumulative incidence of death due to seven selected causes that accounted for more than 80% of the reported deaths (including ischemic heart disease and non-prostate cancer) and analyzed mortality trends by calendar year and age at diagnosis and length of follow-up. Results During follow-up through 2008, prostate cancer accounted for 52% of all reported deaths in Sweden and 30% of reported deaths in the United States among men with prostate cancer; however, only 35% of Swedish men and 16% of US men diagnosed with prostate cancer died from this disease. In both populations, the cumulative incidence of prostate cancer-specific death declined during follow-up, while the cumulative incidences of death from ischemic heart disease and non-prostate cancer remained constant. The 5-year cumulative incidence of death from prostate cancer among all men was 29% in Sweden and 11% in the United States. Conclusions In Sweden and the United States, men diagnosed with prostate cancer are less likely to die from prostate cancer than from another cause. Because many of these other causes of death are preventable through changes in lifestyle, interventions that target lifestyle factors should be integrated into prostate cancer management.
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ABSTRACT: Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing standardized guidelines to mitigate metabolic and bone side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with non-metastatic prostate cancer. We conducted a 2-year prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral teaching hospital. Overall, 236 men (mean age 69.8 ± 7.1) commencing ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer attended a baseline clinic visit between 2007 and 2011, and 153 men were eligible for follow-up after 2 years of continuous ADT. Of these, 113 men had data available for analysis at 2 years. At baseline, 87% of the men were overweight or obese, 61% had hypertension, 56% had hypercholesterolaemia, 27% prior cardiovascular disease, 11% osteoporosis and 40% osteopaenia. After 2 years of ADT, there was an increase in waist circumference (+2.8 ± 6.3 cm, p = 0.002), and, in men without diabetes, in HbA1c (+0.13 ± 0.34%, p = 0.019). Despite this, due to treatment, there were significant reductions in total cholesterol (-0.35 ± 1.00 mmol/L, p < 0.001), and blood pressure (systolic -7.6 ± 19.3 mmHg; diastolic -4.7 ± 11.6 mmHg, p < 0.001). After 2 years, men not receiving anti-resorptive therapy experienced a significant decline in lumbar spine (-0.042 ± 0.134 g/cm(2) , p = 0.012) and total hip bone mineral density (BMD) (-0.026 ± 0.036 g/cm(2) , p < 0.001), whereas bisphosphonate treatment maintained stable BMD. Prevalence of anaemia increased from 13.8 to 32.5%. Older age independently predicted a greater drop in haemoglobin (p = 0.005). We conclude that a structured approach to assess and treat men undergoing ADT effectively improves cardiovascular risk factors and prevents bone decay. Larger studies are needed to determine effects on cardiovascular outcomes, fracture prevention and survival.Andrology 05/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: This study aimed to identify biomarkers for estimating the overall and prostate cancer (PCa)-specific survival in PCa patients at diagnosis. Methods: To explore the importance of embryonic stem cell (ESC) gene signatures, we identified 641 ESC gene predictors (ESCGPs) using published microarray data sets. ESCGPs were selected in a stepwise manner, and were combined with reported genes. Selected genes were analyzed by multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction using prostate fine-needle aspiration samples taken at diagnosis from a Swedish cohort of 189 PCa patients diagnosed between 1986 and 2001. Of these patients, there was overall and PCa-specific survival data available for 97.9%, and 77.9% were primarily treated by hormone therapy only. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratios and Kaplan–Meier plots were used for the survival analysis, and a k-nearest neighbor (kNN) algorithm for estimating overall survival. Results: An expression signature of VGLL3, IGFBP3 and F3 was shown sufficient to categorize the patients into high-, intermediate- and low-risk subtypes. The median overall survival times of the subtypes were 3.23, 4.00 and 9.85 years, respectively. The difference corresponded to hazard ratios of 5.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.91–11.78, P<0.001) for the high-risk subtype and 3.45 (95% CI: 1.79–6.66, P<0.001) for the intermediate-risk compared with the low-risk subtype. The kNN models that included the gene expression signature outperformed the one designed on clinical parameters alone. Conclusions: The expression signature can potentially be used to estimate overall survival time. When validated in future studies, it could be integrated in the routine clinical diagnostic and prognostic procedure of PCa for an optimal treatment decision based on the estimated survival benefit.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 01/2014; · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Substantial geographical differences in prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality exist, being lower among Asian (ASI) men compared with Caucasian (CAU) men. We prospectively compared PCa prevalence in CAU and ASI men from specific populations with low penetrance of prostate-specific antigen screening. Prostate glands were prospectively obtained during autopsy from men who died from causes other than PCa in Moscow, Russia (CAU), and Tokyo, Japan (ASI). Prostates were removed en-block and analyzed in toto. We compared across the 2 populations PCa prevalence, number and Gleason score (GS) of tumour foci, pathological stage, spatial location, and tumor volume using χ(2), Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests, and multiple logistic regression. All statistical tests were two-sided. Three hundred twenty prostates were collected, 220 from CAU men and 100 from ASI mean. The mean age was 62.5 in CAU men and 68.5 years in ASI men (P < .001). PCa prevalences of 37.3% in CAU men and 35.0% in ASI men were observed (P = .70). Average tumor volume was 0.303cm(3). In men aged greater than 60 years, PCa was observed in more than 40% of prostates, reaching nearly 60% in men aged greater than 80 years. GS 7 or greater cancers accounted for 23.1% and 51.4% of all PCa in CAU and ASI men, respectively, (P = .003). When adjusted for age and prostate weight, ASI men still had a greater probability of having GS 7 or greater PCa (P = .03). PCa is found on autopsy in a similar proportion of Russian and Japanese men. More than 50% of cancers in ASI and nearly 25% of cancers in CAU men have a GS of 7 or greater. Our results suggest that the definition of clinically insignificant PCa might be worth re-examining.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 07/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
Mara Meyer Epstein