Pharmacokinetics after a single intravenous dose of the opioid ketobemidone in neonates.
ABSTRACT Ketobemidone is often used as an alternative to morphine in children in the Scandinavian countries. In an earlier study, we have examined the pharmacokinetic properties in children in different age groups but have not focused on neonates. The aim of this clinical trial was to explore the pharmacokinetics of ketobemidone in neonates.
Fifteen full-term neonates (eight females) from 37 gestational weeks at birth and scheduled for elective surgery were included in the trial. Their median age was 3 days (range 1-18 days). Ketobemidone hydrochloride was administered as a single intravenous bolus dose, and ketobemidone concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry over 10 h. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with standard compartmental methods.
The median (range) values for ketobemidone clearance, apparent volume of distribution, volume of central compartment, distribution half-life and elimination half-life were 0.46 (0.23-0.84) l/h/kg, 4.64 (3.50-7.31) l/kg, 1.71 (0.16-3.47) l/kg, 2.85 (1.04-10.78) min and 7.26 (3.5-11.3) h.
Compared with our previous study in children older than 1 year of age, the elimination of ketobemidone appeared to be slower in full-term neonates. Despite a low pharmacokinetic variability of ketobemidone as observed in the present neonatal patient population, we recommend individualizing the dose of ketobemidone based on observations of analgesic efficacy.
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ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of propofol on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam in vivo and to elucidate the mechanism of the pharmacokinetic changes of midazolam by propofol with the use of human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP3A4. In an in vivo, double-blind randomized study, 24 patients received 0.2 mg/kg midazolam and either 2 mg/kg propofol (propofol group) or placebo (placebo group) for induction of anesthesia. In the propofol group, continuous infusion of propofol at 9 mg/kg/h was started immediately after the bolus infusion of propofol and was maintained for an hour. In the placebo group the same dose of soybean emulsion as a placebo was given and infused intravenously for an hour instead of propofol. In an in vitro study the effect of propofol on the metabolism of midazolam was studied with human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP3A4. In the propofol group the mean clearance of midazolam was decreased by 37% (P = .005) and the mean elimination half-life was prolonged by 61% (P = .04) compared with the placebo group. The mean plasma concentrations of 1'-hydroxymidazolam were lower in the propofol group than in the placebo group at 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after midazolam was administered (P < .05). The mean (+/-SD) Michaelis-Menten constant for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation by human liver microsomes was 5.6 +/- 3.3 micromol/L. The formation of 1'-hydroxymidazolam was competitively inhibited by propofol, and the mean inhibition constant was 56.7 +/- 16.6 micromol/L. The mean Michaelis-Menten constant and mean inhibition constant values for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation by recombinant CYP3A4 were 4.0 micromol/L and 61.0 micromol/L, respectively, consistent with the mean values obtained from human liver microsomes. Propofol decreases the clearance of midazolam, and the possible mechanism is the competitive inhibition of hepatic CYP3A4.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/1999; 66(2):110-7. · 6.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The role of the major drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes as well as P-glycoprotein (PGP) was investigated in the disposition of ketobemidone in vitro. Formation of norketobemidone from ketobemidone was studied and compared with the activities of 11 major CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes. The formation of norketobemidone from ketobemidone (1 microM) correlated best with CYP2C9 activity, measured as losartan oxidation (rs = 0.82, n = 19, p < 0.001), but there was also a strong correlation with CYP3A4 activity. Additionally, a good correlation was observed with CYP2C19, CYP2C8 and CYP2B6 at a ketobemidone concentration of 50 microM. Inhibition studies confirmed the involvement of CYP2C9 and CTP3A4 in the formation of norketobemidone. The formation rate of norketobemidone was three times higher in the CYP2C9*1*1 genotype group compared with the CYP2C9*1*2, CYP2C9*1*3 and CYP2C9*3*3 genotypes (p < 0.01). Treatment with verapamil as a PGP inhibitor did not affect the transport of ketobemidone in Caco-2 cells, indicating that PGP is not involved. The data suggest that CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 play a major role in the formation of norketobemidone at clinically relevant concentrations.Xenobiotica 09/2005; 35(8):785-96. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Descriptions of the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of morphine and its metabolites in young children are scant. Previous studies have not differentiated the effects of size from those related to age during infancy. Postoperative children 0-3 yr old were given an intravenous loading dose of morphine hydrochloride (100 micro g kg(-1) in 2 min) followed by either an intravenous morphine infusion of 10 micro g h(-1) kg(-1) (n=92) or 3-hourly intravenous morphine boluses of 30 micro g kg(-1) (n=92). Additional morphine (5 micro g kg(-1)) every 10 min was given if the visual analogue (VAS, 0-10) pain score was >/=4. Arterial blood (1.4 ml) was sampled within 5 min of the loading dose and at 6, 12 and 24 h for morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). The disposition of morphine and formation clearances of morphine base to its glucuronide metabolites and their elimination clearances were estimated using non-linear mixed effects models. The analysis used 1856 concentration observations from 184 subjects. Population parameter estimates and their variability (%) for a one-compartment, first-order elimination model were as follows: volume of distribution 136 (59.3) litres, formation clearance to M3G 64.3 (58.8) litres h(-1), formation clearance to M6G 3.63 (82.2) litres h(-1), morphine clearance by other routes 3.12 litres h(-1) per 70 kg, elimination clearance of M3G 17.4 (43.0) litres h(-1), elimination clearance of M6G 5.8 (73.8) litres h(-1). All parameters are standardized to a 70 kg person using allometric 3/4 power models and reflect fully mature adult values. The volume of distribution increased exponentially with a maturation half-life of 26 days from 83 litres per 70 kg at birth; formation clearance to M3G and M6G increased with a maturation half-life of 88.3 days from 10.8 and 0.61 litres h(-1) per 70 kg respectively at birth. Metabolite formation decreased with increased serum bilirubin concentration. Metabolite clearance increased with age (maturation half-life 129 days), and appeared to be similar to that described for glomerular filtration rate maturation in infants. M3G is the predominant metabolite of morphine in young children and total body morphine clearance is 80% that of adult values by 6 months. A mean steady-state serum concentration of 10 ng ml(-1) can be achieved in children after non-cardiac surgery in an intensive care unit with a morphine hydrochloride infusion of 5 micro g h(-1) kg(-1) at birth (term neonates), 8.5 micro g h(-1) kg(-1) at 1 month, 13.5 micro g h(-1) kg(-1) at 3 months and 18 micro g h(-1) kg(-1) at 1 year and 16 micro g h(-1) kg(-1) for 1- to 3-yr-old children.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 02/2004; 92(2):208-17. · 4.24 Impact Factor