Medication use in normal weight and overweight children in a nationally representative sample of Canadian children
ABSTRACT As overweight and obese children are more likely to develop serious medical conditions, they incur higher doctor and hospital costs compared to their normal weight counterparts. Consequently, the differential healthcare costs between obese and normal weight children may be even greater if medication use is considered.
To compare medication use between normal weight and overweight children in a nationally representative sample from Canada.
Data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007/2009, a cross-sectional survey assessing indicators of health and wellness in Canadians, was used in the current study. The analysis included 2087 children and adolescents between 6-19 years of age with valid measures of body mass index (BMI). Poisson/negative binomial regression was used to examine the association between weight status and the number of medications taken in the last month.
For 6-11 year olds, the frequency of prescription, over-the-counter and natural health product (NHP) medication use did not differ between normal weight and overweight/obese children. For 12-19 year olds, overweight/obese children used prescription medication significantly more often than their normal weight peers (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.59; 95% CI 1.19 to 2.14), whereas for NHP the opposite was the case (adjusted IRR, 0.52; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.82). These children also used nervous system and respiratory medications more frequently than their normal weight peers.
The findings of the present study suggest that the differential usage of prescription drugs among overweight/obese children underline the need to develop effective obesity prevention programmes and policies that may reduce the health and economic burden of childhood obesity.
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ABSTRACT: To explore the association between obesity and asthma in US children and adolescents with adjustment of other structural and behavioral factors. Prevalence and associated risk factors of asthma were explored in 102,273 children and adolescents in the National Survey of Children's Health (2003-2004). Subgroup analysis was performed for subjects of 0-6 year-old, 7-12 year-old, and 13-17 year-old. Crude and adjusted odds ratios for the potential risk factors were examined in univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. The overall prevalence of obesity was 24.5% and that of asthma was 12.5%. The adjusted odds ratio of asthma with obesity remains significantly bigger than 1 for children in the 7-12 and the 13-17 year-old age-groups. Gender and race were significantly associated with asthma in all age groups. The two parent family structure showed significant protectiveness against asthma with children in the 0-6 year-old age group. Poverty was positively associated with asthma in the 7-12 years old age group. Having a smoker in the household increased the odds of asthma by 29% and 23.5% in the 0-6 and 13-17 year-old age-groups, respectively. Higher education level of the parents and access to healthcare showed positive association with asthma in the 13-17 year-old age group. Gender and race were significantly associated with asthma. In the 13-17 year-old age-groups, obesity, household education level, healthcare coverage, and household smoking were positively associated with asthma. Further studies should characterize how the family structure and household education level influence childhood asthma in 0-6 and 13-17 year-old age-groups respectively.Journal of Asthma 10/2009; 46(7):642-6. DOI:10.1080/02770900802503123 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The validity of children's self-reports on medicine use has not been reported. To determine the agreement between parents' and children's reports of medicine use for 5 common complaints and to analyze predictors for disagreement. We used the child-parent validation survey from the research project Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. Three hundred ninety-three 11- and 13-year-old Danish children and their parents responded to identical questionnaires. The main outcome measures were self-reported medicine use during the previous month for headache, stomachache, difficulties in falling asleep, nervousness, and asthma. The percent agreement was lowest with medicine use for headache (64.6%), but was very high for the other 4 complaints (85.3-91.8%). The simple kappa coefficients were moderate to good for medicine use for headaches, stomachache, and asthma (0.31-0.58) but poor for difficulties in falling asleep and nervousness. Children who had the specific complaint during the previous month were more likely than their parents to report more frequent medicine use. We have some confidence in young adolescents' self-reports of medicine use, as the results of this study are in keeping with other studies on the validity of children's reports of health-related behaviors. Furthermore, the findings suggest that such data can be used in epidemiologic studies that aim to categorize children into groups with and without medicine use.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 04/2007; 41(4):581-6. DOI:10.1345/aph.1H579 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study is to update the estimates of the economic burden of illness because of overweight and obesity in Canada by incorporating the increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity, findings of new related comorbidities and rise in the national healthcare expenditure. The burden was estimated from a societal perspective using the prevalence-based cost-of-illness methodology. Results from a literature review of the risks of 18 related comorbidities were combined with prevalence of overweight and obesity in Canada to estimate the extent to which each comorbidity is attributable to overweight and obesity. The direct costs were extracted from the National Health Expenditure Database and allocated to each comorbidity using weights principally from the Economic Burden of Illness in Canada. The study showed that the total direct costs attributable to overweight and obesity in Canada were $6.0 billion in 2006, with 66% attributable to obesity. This corresponds to 4.1% of the total health expenditures in Canada in 2006. The inclusion of newly identified comorbidities increased the direct cost estimates of obesity by 25%, while the rise in national healthcare expenditure accounted for a 19% increase. Policies to reduce being overweight and obese could potentially save the Canadian healthcare system millions of dollars.Obesity Reviews 05/2009; 11(1):31-40. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00579.x · 7.86 Impact Factor