Pregestational diabetes with extreme insulin resistance: use of U-500 insulin in pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Increased insulin requirements in pregnancy can hinder attainment of glycemic control in diabetic patients. U-500 insulin is a concentrated form of regular insulin that can be a valuable tool in the treatment of patients with severe insulin resistance.
A 24-year-old woman with pregestational diabetes mellitus experienced increasing insulin requirements during pregnancy, peaking at 650 units daily. The frequent, large-volume injections of standard-concentration insulin were poorly tolerated by the patient and resulted in nonadherence. She subsequently achieved glycemic control on thrice-daily U-500 insulin.
Pregnancy exacerbates insulin resistance in diabetic patients, and these patients may require high doses of insulin. U-500 insulin is an effective alternative for patients with severe insulin resistance and should be considered for pregnant women with difficulty achieving glycemic control.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women with severe insulin resistance treated with 500 units/mL concentrated insulin. METHODS:: Retrospective analysis of gravid women with severe insulin resistance (need for greater than 100 units of insulin per injection or greater than 200 units/d) treated with either 500 units/mL concentrated insulin or conventional insulin therapy. We performed a two-part analysis: 1) between gravid women treated with and without 500 units/mL concentrated insulin; and 2) among gravid women treated with 500 units/mL concentrated insulin, comparing glycemic control before and after its initiation. RESULTS:: Seventy-three pregnant women with severe insulin resistance were treated with 500 units/mL concentrated insulin and 78 with conventional insulin regimens. Patients treated with 500 units/mL concentrated insulin were older and more likely to have type 2 diabetes mellitus. Average body mass index was comparable between both groups (38.6 compared with 40.4, P=.11) as were obstetric and perinatal outcomes and glycemic control during the last week of gestation. Within the 500 units/mL concentrated insulin cohort, after initiation of this medication, fasting and postprandial blood glucose concentrations improved. However, the rates of blood glucose values less than 60 mg/dL and less than 50 mg/dL were higher in the 500 units/mL concentrated insulin group after initiation than before, 4.8% compared with 2.0% (P<.01) and 2.0% compared with 0.7% (P<.01), respectively. CONCLUSION:: The use of 500 units/mL concentrated insulin in severely obese insulin-resistant pregnant women confers similar glycemic control compared with traditional insulin regimens but may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.Obstetrics and Gynecology 06/2013; · 4.37 Impact Factor
- Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2012; 120(2 Pt 2):435-6. · 4.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: For women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and gestational diabetes (GDM), poor maternal glycemic control can significantly increase maternal and fetal risk for adverse outcomes. Outpatient medical and nutrition therapy is recommended for all women with diabetes in order to facilitate euglycemia during the antepartum period. Despite intensive outpatient therapy, women with diabetes often require inpatient diabetes management prior to delivery as maternal hyperglycemia can significantly increase neonatal risk of hypoglycemia. Consensus guidelines recommend maternal glucose range of 80-110 mg/dL in labor. The most optimal inpatient strategies for the prevention of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia proximate to delivery remain unclear and will depend upon factors such as maternal diabetes diagnosis, her baseline insulin resistance, duration and route of delivery etc. Low dose intravenous insulin and dextrose protocols are necessary to achieve optimal predelivery glycemic control for women with T1DM and T2DM. For most with GDM however, euglycemia can be maintained without intravenous insulin. Women treated with a subcutaneous insulin pump during the antepartum period represent a unique challenge to labor and delivery staff. Strategies for self-managed subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) use prior to delivery require intensive education and coordination of care with the labor team in order to maintain patient safety. Hospitalization is recommended for most women with diabetes prior to delivery and in the postpartum period despite appropriate outpatient glycemic control. Women with poorly controlled diabetes in any trimester have an increased baseline maternal and fetal risk for adverse outcomes. Common indications for antepartum hospitalization of these women include failed outpatient therapy and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Inpatient management of DKA is a significant cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and remains a common indication for hospitalization of the pregnant woman with diabetes. Changes in maternal physiology increase insulin resistance and the risk for DKA. A systematic approach to its management will be reviewed.Current Diabetes Reports 02/2014; 14(2):457. · 3.38 Impact Factor