Mutations in TPM2 and congenital fibre type disproportion
ABSTRACT The main diagnostic feature of congenital fibre type disproportion is that type 1 fibres are consistently smaller than type 2 fibres in the absence of other histological abnormalities. Mutations in the TPM3, RYR1 and ACTA1 genes are the most common established genetic causes. There has been one previous report of congenital fibre type disproportion due to a mutation in TPM2, although some atypical histological features were present. We present two cases in which novel de novo missense mutations in TPM2 are associated with marked fibre size disproportion. The finding of typical histological changes of congenital fibre type disproportion in association with a p.Ser61Pro mutation confirms that TPM2 can cause typical congenital fibre type disproportion. Although not seen on light microscopy studies, protein inclusions typical of small 'caps' were found on electron microscopy in a second patient with a p.Ala155Val mutation in TPM2. This case emphasises the importance of electron microscopy in patients with presumed congenital fibre type disproportion, to exclude the presence of caps, nemaline bodies or minicores, which, if present, may be very helpful in guiding genetic analysis.
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ABSTRACT: A boy, who had shown muscle weakness and hypotonia from early childhood and fiber type disproportion (FTD) with no dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy, was initially diagnosed as having congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD). Subsequently, he developed cardiac conduction blocks. We reconsidered the diagnosis as possible LMNA-myopathy and found a heterozygous mutation in the LMNA gene. This encouraged us to search for LMNA mutations on 80 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of CFTD with unknown cause. Two patients including the above index case had heterozygous in-frame deletion mutations of c.367_369delAAG and c.99_101delGGA in LMNA, respectively. Four of 23 muscular dystrophy patients with LMNA mutation also showed fiber type disproportion (FTD). Importantly, all FTD associated with LMNA-myopathy were caused by hypertrophy of type 2 fibers as compared with age-matched controls, whereas CFTD with mutations in ACTA1 or TPM3 showed selective type 1 fiber atrophy but no type 2 fiber hypertrophy. Although FTD is not a constant pathological feature of LMNA-myopathy, we should consider the possibility of LMNA-myopathy whenever a diagnosis of CFTD is made and take steps to prevent cardiac insufficiency.Journal of the neurological sciences 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jns.2014.02.036 · 2.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital myopathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by early onset hypotonia, weakness and characteristic, but not pathognomonic, structural abnormalities in muscle fibres. The clinical features overlap with muscular dystrophies, myofibrillar myopathies, neurogenic conditions and congenital myasthenic syndromes. We describe a case of cap myopathy with myasthenic features due to a mutation in the TPM2 gene that responded to anti-cholinesterase therapy. We also review other published cases of congenital myopathies with neuromuscular transmission abnormalities. This report expands the spectrum of congenital myopathies with secondary neuromuscular transmission defects. The recognition of these cases is important since these conditions can benefit from treatment with drugs enhancing neuromuscular transmission.Neuromuscular Disorders 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2014.07.005 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital myopathies are difficult to classify correctly through molecular testing due to the size and heterogeneity of the genes involved. Therefore, the prevalence of the various genetic causes of congenital myopathies is largely unknown. In our cohort of 94 patients with congenital myopathy, two related female patients and two sporadic, male patients were found to carry mutations in the tropomyosin 2 (TPM2) and tropomyosin 3 (TPM3) genes, respectively. This indicates a low (4.3%) frequency of TPM2 and TPM3 mutations as a cause of congenital myopathy. Compared to previously described patients carrying the same mutations as found in our study (c.503G>A, and c.502C>T in TPM3, and c.415_417delGAG in TPM2), clinical presentation and muscle morphological findings differed in our patients. Differences included variation in distribution of muscle weakness, presence of scoliosis and ptosis, physical performance and joint contractures. The variation in clinical profiles emphasizes the phenotypic heterogeneity. However, common features were also present, such as onset of symptoms in infancy or childhood, musculoskeletal deformities and normal or low plasma levels of creatine kinase. One patient had nemaline myopathy and fiber size disproportion, while three patients had congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) on muscle biopsies. TPM2-related CFTD has only been described in two cases, indicating that mutations in TPM2 are rare causes of CFTD.Neuromuscular Disorders 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.nmd.2013.12.008 · 3.13 Impact Factor