VEGF-C promotes immune tolerance in B16 melanomas and cross-presentation of tumor antigen by lymph node lymphatics.
ABSTRACT Tumor expression of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C is correlated with metastasis and poor prognosis, and although VEGF-C enhances transport to the draining lymph node (dLN) and antigen exposure to the adaptive immune system, its role in tumor immunity remains unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that VEGF-C promotes immune tolerance in murine melanoma. In B16 F10 melanomas expressing a foreign antigen (OVA), VEGF-C protected tumors against preexisting antitumor immunity and promoted local deletion of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells. Naive OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells, transferred into tumor-bearing mice, were dysfunctionally activated and apoptotic. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) in dLNs cross-presented OVA, and naive LECs scavenge and cross-present OVA in vitro. Cross-presenting LECs drove the proliferation and apoptosis of OVA-specific CD8(+) T cells ex vivo. Our findings introduce a tumor-promoting role for lymphatics in the tumor and dLN and suggest that lymphatic endothelium in the local microenvironment may be a target for immunomodulation.
- SourceAvailable from: Aleksander S Popel[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is central to many physiological and pathological processes. Here we show two potent bioinformatically-identified peptides, one derived from collagen IV and translationally optimized, and one from a somatotropin domain-containing protein, synergize in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis assays including cell adhesion, migration and in vivo Matrigel plugs. Peptide-peptide combination therapies have recently been applied to diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but remain uncommon thus far in cancer, age-related macular degeneration and other angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Previous work from our group has shown that the collagen IV-derived peptide primarily binds β1 integrins, while the receptor for the somatotropin-derived peptide remains unknown. We investigate these peptides' mechanisms of action and find both peptides affect the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway as well as focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by changes in phosphorylation level and total protein content. Blocking of FAK both through binding of β1 integrins and through inhibition of VEGFR2 accounts for the synergy we observe. Since resistance through activation of multiple signaling pathways is a central problem of anti-angiogenic therapies in diseases such as cancer, we suggest that peptide combinations such as these are an approach that should be considered as a means to sustain anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic therapy and improve efficacy of treatment.Angiogenesis 09/2012; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Immune recognition and elimination of cancerous cells is the primary goal of cancer immunotherapy. However, obstacles including immune tolerance and tumor-induced immunosuppression often limit beneficial immune responses. Vaccination is one proposed intervention that may help to overcome these issues and is an active area of study in cancer immunotherapy. Immunizing with tumor antigenic peptides is a promising, straight-forward vaccine strategy hypothesized to boost preexisting antitumor immunity. However, tumor antigens are often weak T cell agonists, attributable to several mechanisms, including immune self-tolerance and poor immunogenicity of self-derived tumor peptides. One strategy for overcoming these mechanisms is vaccination with mimotopes, or peptide mimics of tumor antigens, which alter the antigen presentation and/or T cell activation to increase the expansion of tumor-specific T cells. Evaluation of mimotope vaccine strategies has revealed that even subtle alterations in peptide sequence can dramatically alter antigen presentation and T cell receptor recognition. Most of this research has been performed using T cell clones, which may not be accurate representations of the naturally occurring antitumor response. The relationship between clones generated after mimotope vaccination and the polyclonal T cell repertoire is unclear. Our work with mimotopes in a mouse model of colon carcinoma has revealed important insights into these issues. We propose that the identification of mimotopes based on stimulation of the naturally responding T cell repertoire will dramatically improve the efficacy of mimotope vaccination.Immunologic Research 08/2012; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lymphatic vessels transport fluid, antigens, and immune cells to the lymph nodes to orchestrate adaptive immunity and maintain peripheral tolerance. Lymphangiogenesis has been associated with inflammation, cancer metastasis, autoimmunity, tolerance and transplant rejection, and thus, targeted lymphatic ablation is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating or preventing such events. Here we define conditions that lead to specific and local closure of the lymphatic vasculature using photodynamic therapy (PDT). Lymphatic-specific PDT was performed by irradiation of the photosensitizer verteporfin that effectively accumulates within collecting lymphatic vessels after local intradermal injection. We found that anti-lymphatic PDT induced necrosis of endothelial cells and pericytes, which preceded the functional occlusion of lymphatic collectors. This was specific to lymphatic vessels at low verteporfin dose, while higher doses also affected local blood vessels. In contrast, light dose (fluence) did not affect blood vessel perfusion, but did affect regeneration time of occluded lymphatic vessels. Lymphatic vessels eventually regenerated by recanalization of blocked collectors, with a characteristic hyperplasia of peri-lymphatic smooth muscle cells. The restoration of lymphatic function occurred with minimal remodeling of non-lymphatic tissue. Thus, anti-lymphatic PDT allows control of lymphatic ablation and regeneration by alteration of light fluence and photosensitizer dose.Angiogenesis 07/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor