[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among Alaska Native children is much higher than among non-Native populations in the United States. We conducted this study to better understand factors associated with hospitalization attributable to RSV infection in this high-risk population.
Case-control study, including collection of cord blood for RSV-neutralizing antibody measurement.
Remote region of southwest Alaska served by 1 regional hospital and 2 referral hospitals.
Case-patients identified through surveillance for RSV infection and matched control subjects without acute respiratory infection hospitalization.
Breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of RSV hospitalization (odds ratio: 0.34), whereas underlying medical conditions (primarily prematurity) were associated with increased risk (odds ratio: 6.25). Environmental factors associated with a higher risk of hospitalization included household crowding (4 or more children in the household and crowding index > or =2). The level of maternal RSV-neutralizing antibody was not associated with the risk of hospitalization.
In this region with extremely high risk of RSV hospitalization, several measures, such as encouraging breastfeeding and reducing household crowding, could reduce the risk of hospitalization attributable to RSV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Acute lower respiratory illnesses (ALRI) have been associated with exposure to domestic smoke. To examine further this association, a case-control study was conducted among Navajo children seen at the Public Health Service Indian Hospital at Fort Defiance, AZ.
Methods: Cases, children hospitalized with an ALRI (n = 45), were ascertained from the inpatient logs during October, 1992, through March, 1993. Controls, children who had a health record at the same hospital and had never been hospitalized for ALRI, were matched 1:1 to cases on date of birth and gender. Home interviews of parents of subjects during March and April, 1993, elicited information on heating and cooking fuels and other household characteristics. Indoor air samples were collected for determination of time-weighted average concentrations of respirable particles (i.e. <10 μm in diameter).
Results: Age of cases at the time of admission ranged from 1 to 24 months (median, 7 months); 60% of the cases were male. Matched pair analysis revealed an increased risk of ALRI for children living in households that cooked with any wood (odds ratio (OR), 5.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6 to 42.8), had indoor air concentrations of respirable particles ≥65 μg/m3 (i.e. 90th percentile) (OR 7.0, 95% CI 0.9 to 56.9), and where the primary caretaker was other than the mother (OR 9, 95% CI 1.1 to 71.4). Individual adjustment for potential confounders resulted in minor change (i.e. <20%) in these results. Indoor air concentration of respirable particles was positively correlated with cooking and heating with wood (P < 0.02) but not with other sources of combustion emissions.
Conclusions: Cooking with wood-burning stoves was associated with higher indoor air concentrations of respirable particles and with an increased risk of ALRI in Navajo children.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity for children worldwide and particularly for children from developing and indigenous populations. In this study, we evaluated risk factors for hospitalization with LRTI in a region in southwest Alaska.
The study was conducted from October 1, 2006, to September 30, 2007, in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta region of Alaska. Cases were recruited from children <3 years of age hospitalized with LRTI. Controls were recruited during visits to the surrounding communities in the region and matched posthoc to cases on the basis of subregion, season, and age. Parents were interviewed for potential risk factors, and medical records were reviewed. Participants had a nasopharyngeal swab sample taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for a panel of respiratory viruses. Samples positive for respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, or parainfluenza type 3 were quantitated by reverse transcriptase real-time quantitative PCR.
One hundred twenty-eight cases were matched to 186 controls. In a multivariable conditional logistic regression model, significantly (P < .05) increased risk of hospitalization was associated with medically high-risk status, having a woodstove in the house, being bottle fed, and vomiting after feeding; living in a house that had 2 or more rooms with sinks was a protective factor. Viral loads in hospitalized cases were significantly higher than those in controls, but a strict cutoff level was not observed.
Several risk factors for LRTI hospitalization were identified in this high risk population. Some factors are amenable to environmental and behavioral interventions.
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