Article

Crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E-Cup complex reveals a general mechanism of eIF4E regulation in translational repression.

Max-Planck-Institute for Developmental Biology, 71076 Tübingen, Germany.
RNA (Impact Factor: 5.09). 07/2012; 18(9):1624-34. DOI: 10.1261/rna.033639.112
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cup is an eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) that plays a central role in translational regulation of localized mRNAs during early Drosophila development. In particular, Cup is required for repressing translation of the maternally contributed oskar, nanos, and gurken mRNAs, all of which are essential for embryonic body axis determination. Here, we present the 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E-Cup assembly, consisting of the interacting regions of the two proteins. In the structure, two separate segments of Cup contact two orthogonal faces of eIF4E. The eIF4E-binding consensus motif of Cup (YXXXXLΦ) binds the convex side of eIF4E similarly to the consensus of other eIF4E-binding proteins, such as 4E-BPs and eIF4G. The second, noncanonical, eIF4E-binding site of Cup binds laterally and perpendicularly to the eIF4E β-sheet. Mutations of Cup at this binding site were shown to reduce binding to eIF4E and to promote the destabilization of the associated mRNA. Comparison with the binding mode of eIF4G to eIF4E suggests that Cup and eIF4G binding would be mutually exclusive at both binding sites. This shows how a common molecular surface of eIF4E might recognize different proteins acting at different times in the same pathway. The structure provides insight into the mechanism by which Cup disrupts eIF4E-eIF4G interaction and has broader implications for understanding the role of 4E-BPs in translational regulation.

1 Bookmark
 · 
76 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E is overexpressed in many human malignancies where it is typically a harbinger of poor prognosis. eIF4E is positioned as a nexus in post-transcriptional gene expression. To carry out these functions, eIF4E needs to bind the m7G cap moiety on mRNAs. It plays critical roles in mRNA translation, mRNA export, and most likely in mRNA stability as well. Through these activities, eIF4E coordinately modulates the expression of many transcripts involved in proliferation and survival. eIF4E function is controlled by interactions with protein cofactors in concert with many signaling pathways, including Ras, Mnk, Erk, MAPK, PI3K, mTOR, and Akt. This review describes the eIF4E activity and provides several examples of cellular control mechanisms. Further, we describe some therapeutic strategies in preclinical and clinical development.
    Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 03/2013; · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A key player in translation initiation is eIF4E, the mRNA 5' cap-binding protein. 4E-Transporter (4E-T) is a recently characterized eIF4E-binding protein, which regulates specific mRNAs in several developmental model systems. Here, we first investigated the role of its enrichment in P-bodies and eIF4E-binding in translational regulation in mammalian cells. Identification of the conserved C-terminal sequences that target 4E-T to P-bodies was enabled by comparison of vertebrate proteins with homologues in Drosophila (Cup and CG32016) and Caenorhabditis elegans by sequence and cellular distribution. In tether function assays, 4E-T represses bound mRNA translation, in a manner independent of these localization sequences, or of endogenous P-bodies. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and northern blot analysis verified that bound mRNA remained intact and polyadenylated. Ectopic 4E-T reduces translation globally in a manner dependent on eIF4E binding its consensus Y(30)X4L site. In contrast, tethered 4E-T continued to repress translation when eIF4E-binding was prevented by mutagenesis of YX4L, and modestly enhanced the decay of bound mRNA, compared with wild-type 4E-T, mediated by increased binding of CNOT1/7 deadenylase subunits. As depleting 4E-T from HeLa cells increased steady-state translation, in part due to relief of microRNA-mediated silencing, this work demonstrates the conserved yet unconventional mechanism of 4E-T silencing of particular subsets of mRNAs.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cap-dependent translation initiation is regulated by the interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) with eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BPs). Whereas the binding of 4E-BP peptides containing the eIF4E-binding (54)YXXXXLΦ(60) motif has been studied, atomic-level characterization of the interaction of eIF4E with full-length 4E-BPs has been lacking. Here, we use isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to characterize the dynamic, structural and binding properties of 4E-BP2. Although disordered, 4E-BP2 contains significant fluctuating secondary structure and binds eIF4E at an extensive bipartite interface including the canonical (54)YXXXXLΦ(60) and (78)IPGVT(82) sites. Each of the two binding elements individually has submicromolar affinity and exchange on and off of the eIF4E surface within the context of the overall nanomolar complex. This dynamic interaction facilitates exposure of regulatory phosphorylation sites within the complex. The 4E-BP2 interface on eIF4E overlaps yet is more extensive than the eIF4G:eIF4E interface, suggesting that these key interactions may be differentially targeted for therapeutics.
    Structure 10/2013; · 5.99 Impact Factor