Crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E-Cup complex reveals a general mechanism of eIF4E regulation in translational repression.
ABSTRACT Cup is an eIF4E-binding protein (4E-BP) that plays a central role in translational regulation of localized mRNAs during early Drosophila development. In particular, Cup is required for repressing translation of the maternally contributed oskar, nanos, and gurken mRNAs, all of which are essential for embryonic body axis determination. Here, we present the 2.8 Å resolution crystal structure of a minimal eIF4E-Cup assembly, consisting of the interacting regions of the two proteins. In the structure, two separate segments of Cup contact two orthogonal faces of eIF4E. The eIF4E-binding consensus motif of Cup (YXXXXLΦ) binds the convex side of eIF4E similarly to the consensus of other eIF4E-binding proteins, such as 4E-BPs and eIF4G. The second, noncanonical, eIF4E-binding site of Cup binds laterally and perpendicularly to the eIF4E β-sheet. Mutations of Cup at this binding site were shown to reduce binding to eIF4E and to promote the destabilization of the associated mRNA. Comparison with the binding mode of eIF4G to eIF4E suggests that Cup and eIF4G binding would be mutually exclusive at both binding sites. This shows how a common molecular surface of eIF4E might recognize different proteins acting at different times in the same pathway. The structure provides insight into the mechanism by which Cup disrupts eIF4E-eIF4G interaction and has broader implications for understanding the role of 4E-BPs in translational regulation.
- SourceAvailable from: cornell.eduJournal of Applied Crystallography, v.26, 795-800 (1993). 01/1993;
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ABSTRACT: Specific recognition of the mRNA 5' cap by eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4E is a rate-limiting step in the translation initiation. Fluorescence spectroscopy and high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry were used to examine the thermodynamics of eIF4E binding to a cap-analogue, 7-methylGpppG. A van't Hoff plot revealed nonlinearity characterized by an unexpected, large positive molar heat capacity change (DeltaC(degree)(p) = +1.92 +/- 0.93 kJ.mol(-1).K(-1)), which was confirmed by direct ITC measurements (DeltaC(degree)(p) = +1.941 +/- 0.059 kJ.mol(-1).K(-1)). This unique result appears to come from an extensive additional hydration upon binding and charge-related interactions within the binding site. As a consequence of the positive DeltaC(degree)(p), the nature of the thermodynamic driving force changes with increasing temperature, from enthalpy-driven and entropy-opposed, through enthalpy- and entropy-driven in the range of biological temperatures, into entropy-driven and enthalpy-opposed. Comparison of the van't Hoff and calorimetric enthalpy values provided proof for the ligand protonation at N(1) upon binding, which is required for tight stabilization of the cap-eIF4E complex. Intramolecular self-stacking of the dinucleotide cap-analogue was analyzed to reveal the influence of this coupled process on the thermodynamic parameters of the eIF4E-mRNA 5' cap interaction. The temperature-dependent change in the conformation of 7-methylGpppG shifts significantly the intrinsic DeltaH(degree)(0) = -72.9 +/- 4.2 kJ.mol(-1) and DeltaS(degree)(0) = -116 +/- 58 J.mol(-1).K(-1) of binding to the less negative resultant values, by DeltaH(degree)(sst) = +9.76 +/- 1.15 kJ.mol(-1) and DeltaS(degree)(sst) = +24.8 +/- 2.1 J.mol(-1).K(-1) (at 293 K), while the corresponding DeltaC(degree)(p)(sst) = -0.0743 +/- 0.0083 kJ.mol(-1).K(-1) is negligible in comparison with the total DeltaC(degree)(p) .Biochemistry 11/2002; 41(40):12140-8. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML is organized into nuclear bodies which mediate suppression of oncogenic transformation and of growth. The biochemical functions of PML bodies are unknown, despite their involvement in several human disorders. We demonstrate that eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) directly binds the PML RING, a domain required for association with bodies and for suppression of transformation. Nuclear eIF4E functions in nucleocytoplasmic transport of a subset of transcripts including Cyclin D1. Present studies indicate that some PML requires the evolutionarily older eIF4E protein for association with nuclear bodies. Further more, PML RING modulates eIF4E activity by drastically reducing its affinity for its substrate, 5' m(7)G cap of mRNA. We demonstrate that eIF4E requires cap binding for transport of Cyclin D1 mRNA and subsequent transformation activity. Additionally, PML reduces the affinity of eIF4E for m(7)G mRNA cap, causing a reduction in Cyclin D1 protein levels and consequent transformation inhibition. PML is the first factor shown to modulate nuclear eIF4E function. These findings provide the first biochemical framework for understanding the transformation suppression activity of PML.The EMBO Journal 09/2001; 20(16):4547-59. · 9.82 Impact Factor