Co-infection by two linezolid-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci with two different resistance determinants.
ABSTRACT Linezolid resistance among Gram-positive pathogens is being reported with increasing frequency. We examined 14 linezolid-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from blood cultures obtained from patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of Vicenza General Hospital, Italy. The species identification yielded 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 3 Staphylococcus hominis, and 1 Staphylococcus capitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of linezolid ranged between 16 and 32 mg/l. By sequencing domain V of the 23S rRNA gene, 4 isolates were found to harbour a G2576T mutation and 10 isolates a G2447T mutation. None of the strains under study presented either the cfr gene or cardinal mutations in the L3, L4, or L22 riboproteins. In this clinical collection of linezolid-resistant CoNS the G2447T mutation was dominantly associated with S. epidermidis, while the G2576T mutation was found in other CoNS species. Two different CoNS species endowed with either mutation were isolated from 2 patients.
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ABSTRACT: TR-700 (torezolid), the active moiety of the novel oxazolidinone phosphate prodrug TR-701, is highly potent against gram-positive pathogens, including strains resistant to linezolid (LZD). Here we investigated the potential of Staphylococcus aureus strains ATCC 29213 (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus [MSSA]) and ATCC 33591 (methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) to develop resistance to TR-700. The spontaneous frequencies of mutation of MSSA 29213 and MRSA 33591 resulting in reduced susceptibility to TR-700 at 2 x the MIC were 1.1 x 10(-10) and 1.9 x 10(-10), respectively. These values are approximately 16-fold lower than the corresponding LZD spontaneous mutation frequencies of both strains. Following 30 serial passages in the presence of TR-700, the MIC for MSSA 29213 remained constant (0.5 microg/ml) while increasing eightfold (0.25 to 2.0 microg/ml) for MRSA 33591. Serial passage of MSSA 29213 and MRSA 33591 in LZD resulted in 64- and 32-fold increases in LZD resistance (2 to 128 microg/ml and 1 to 32 microg/ml, respectively). Domain V 23S rRNA gene mutations (Escherichia coli numbering) found in TR-700-selected mutants included T2500A and a novel coupled T2571C/G2576T mutation, while LZD-selected mutants included G2447T, T2500A, and G2576T. We also identified mutations correlating with decreased susceptibility to TR-700 and LZD in the rplC and rplD genes, encoding the 50S ribosomal proteins L3 and L4, respectively. L3 mutations included Gly152Asp, Gly155Arg, Gly155Arg/Met169Leu, and DeltaPhe127-His146. The only L4 mutation detected was Lys68Gln. TR-700 maintained a fourfold or greater potency advantage over LZD against all strains with ribosomal mutations. These data bring to light a variety of novel and less-characterized mutations associated with S. aureus resistance to oxazolidinones and demonstrate the low resistance potential of torezolid.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2009; 53(12):5265-74. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Following recent reports of ribosomal protein L3 mutations in laboratory-derived linezolid-resistant (LZD(r)) Staphylococcus aureus, we investigated whether similar mutations were present in LZD(r) staphylococci of clinical origin. Sequence analysis of a variety of LZD(r) isolates revealed two L3 mutations, DeltaSer145 (S. aureus NRS127) and Ala157Arg (Staphylococcus epidermidis 1653059), both occurring proximal to the oxazolidinone binding site in the peptidyl transferase center. The oxazolidinone torezolid maintained a >or=8-fold potency advantage over linezolid for both strains.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2009; 53(12):5275-8. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains (MIC 32 mg/L) in patients admitted to the Verona University Hospital Intensive Care Unit. The strains proved to be clonally related at pulsed field gel electrophoresis. All the strains showed the G2576T mutation responsible for linezolid-resistance and retained their resistance even after several passages on antibiotic-free medium. After a decade of linezolid use, multifocal emergence of linezolid resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci has become an important matter of concern and mandates stricter control over the use of this antibiotic in order to preserve its clinical utility.European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 07/2011; 31(4):523-7. · 3.02 Impact Factor