Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine
ABSTRACT Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. We describe a previously healthy 2-year-old boy with ADEM, who exhibited high fever, lethargy, and recurrent seizures at 25 days after H1N1 influenza vaccination. To our knowledge, there has been only one report of ADEM following the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine, although such vaccination is accompanied with optic neuritis apart from this case. Thus, this is the first case of ADEM without optic neuritis, following the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination. Although vaccine-associated ADEM remains rare, the increasing number of influenza vaccinations might increase the incidence of ADEM. We still need to pay attention to the occurrence of ADEM and treat patients with steroid therapy.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children for whom claims were filed with the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program (VICP) alleging seizure disorder and/or encephalopathy as a vaccine injury. The National VICP within the Department of Health and Human Services compensates individuals who develop medical problems associated with a covered immunization. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of children younger than 2 years of age with seizures and/or encephalopathy allegedly caused by an immunization, where a claim was filed in the VICP between 1995 through 2005. The VICP retrieved 165 claims that had sufficient clinical information for review. Approximately 80% of these alleged an injury associated with whole-cell diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus or tetanus, diphtheria toxoids, and acellular pertussis vaccine. Pre-existing seizures were found in 13% and abnormal findings on a neurologic examination before the alleged vaccine injury in 10%. A final diagnostic impression of seizure disorder was established in 69%, of whom 17% (28 patients) had myoclonic epilepsy, including possible severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Specific conditions not caused by immunization, such as tuberous sclerosis and cerebral dysgenesis, were identified in 16% of subjects. A significant number of children with alleged vaccine injury had pre-existing neurologic or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Among those developing chronic epilepsy, many had clinical features suggesting genetically determined epilepsy. Future studies that include genotyping may allow more specific therapy and prognostication, and enhance public confidence in vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Journal of Pediatrics 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2014.10.054 · 3.74 Impact Factor
Pediatrics International 06/2014; 56(3). DOI:10.1111/ped.12148 · 0.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: To illustrate that acute, even dramatic, demyelination of the central nervous system and encephalitis can occur after viral i.e. influenza A/H1N1 vaccination or infection. Patients and methods: We describe a case of encephalitis/acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with vaccination against influenza A/H1N1 and review the available literature. Results: We report a case of a 26-year-old female who developed symptoms of acute encephalitis 5 days after vaccination against the pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. MRI of the brain showed confluent T2-hyperintense signal intensity changes in the deep white matter which further confirmed the diagnosis of encephalitis/acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Despite therapy with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids, her persistent vegetative state continued. In light of the dramatic cause of this case, we reviewed all 21 other previously reported cases of central nervous system demyelination related to H1N1 vaccination and/or infection. Conclusions: The available data suggest that even severe central nervous system demyelination i.e. acute encephalitis/disseminated encephalomyelitis and transverse myelitis may very rarely be associated with vaccination against novel influenza A/H1N1 or with A/H1N1 infection itself.Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 06/2014; 124C:8-15. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.06.003 · 1.25 Impact Factor