British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1-positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2012.
ABSTRACT The overall purpose of these guidelines is to provide guidance on best clinical practice in the treatment and management of adults with HIV infection with antiretroviral therapy (ART). The scope includes: (i) guidance on the initiation of ART in those previously naïve to therapy; (ii)support of patients on treatment; (iii) management of patients experiencing virological failure; and (iv) recommendations in specific patient populations where other factors need to be taken into consideration. The guidelines are aimed at clinical professionals directly involved with and responsible for the care of adults with HIV infection and at community advocates responsible for promoting the best interests and care of HIV-positive adults. They should be read in conjunction with other published BHIVA guidelines.
SourceAvailable from: Venkata Subba Rao Atluri[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A novel approach was developed for the coencapsulation of an anti-HIV drug (teno-fovir) and a latency-breaking agent (vorinostat), using magnetically guided layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled nanocarriers for the treatment of neuroAIDS. Ultrasmall iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4) nanopar-ticles (10±3 nm) were synthesized and characterized. The LbL technique was used to achieve a sustained release profile, and application of 2 bilayers ([tenofovir+dextran sulphate] 2 +vorinostat) to magnetic nanoparticles resulted in a 2.8 times increase in drug (tenofovir) loading and also resulted in an increase in the drug release period by 30-fold, with 100% drug release in sustained manner over a period of 5 days with the simultaneous stimulation of latent HIV expression. Nanoformulation showed a good blood–brain barrier transmigration ability (37.95%±1.5%) with good in vitro antiviral efficacy (~33% reduction of p24 level) over a period of 5 days after HIV infection in primary human astrocytes, with good cell viability (.90%). Hence, LbL arrangements of drugs on magnetic nanoparticles provides sustained release and, therefore, may improve the patient's adherence to therapy and lead to better compliance.International Journal of Nanomedicine 02/2015; 15:1077-1093. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S76517 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A number of antiviral agents used against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono or co-infection have been associated with real nephrotoxicity (including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), atazanavir, indinavir and lopinavir) or apparent changes in renal function (e.g. cobicistat, ritonavir, rilpivirine and dolutegravir). Patients with HIV are at higher risk of acute and chronic renal dysfunction, so baseline assessment and ongoing monitoring of renal function is an important part of routine management of patients with HIV. Given the paucity of evidence in this area, we sought to establish a consensus view on how routine monitoring could be performed in Australian patients on ART regimens, especially those involving TDF. A group of nephrologists and prescribers (an HIV physician and a hepatologist) were assembled by Gilead to discuss practical and reasonable renal management strategies for patients particularly those on TDF-based combination regimens (in the case of those with HIV-infection) or on TDF-monotherapy (in the case of HBV-mono infection). The group considered which investigations should be performed as part of routine practice, their frequency, and when specialist renal referral is warranted. The algorithm presented suggests testing for serum creatinine along with plasma phosphate and an assessment of urinary protein (rather than albumin) and glucose. Here we advocate baseline tests of renal function at initiation of therapy. If creatinine excretion inhibitors (e.g. cobicistat or rilpivirine) are used as part of the ART regimen, we suggest creatinine is rechecked at 4 weeks and this value used as the new baseline. Repeat testing is suggested at 3-monthly intervals for a year and then at least yearly thereafter if no abnormalities are detected. In patients with abnormal baseline results, renal function assessment should be performed at least 6 monthly. In HBV mono-infected patients advocate that a similar testing protocol may be logical.AIDS Research and Therapy 11/2014; 11:35. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-35 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cobicistat is an alternative pharmacoenhancer to ritonavir. In healthy volunteers, darunavir exposure was comparable when darunavir 800 mg once daily was co-administered with cobicistat 150 mg once daily (as single agents or a fixed-dose combination) vs. with ritonavir 100 mg once daily. This 48-week, Phase IIIb, single-arm, US multicenter study (NCT01440569) evaluated safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily (as single agents) plus two investigator-selected nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs) in HIV-1-infected adults. Patients had no darunavir resistance-associated mutations (RAMs), plasma viral load (VL) ≥1000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml, eGFR ≥80 ml/min and genotypic sensitivity to the two N[t]RTIs. The primary endpoint was any treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 adverse events (AEs) through Week 24. The majority of the 313 intent-to-treat patients were treatment-naïve (295/313; 94%), male (89%), White (60%) and received a tenofovir-based regimen (99%). Median baseline VL and CD4(+) count overall were 4.8 log10 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml and 361 cells/mm(3), respectively. Overall, 86% of patients (268/313) completed the study. The majority of discontinuations were for AEs (15/313; 5%). The incidence of treatment-emergent grade 3 or 4 AEs regardless of causality was 6% through Week 24 and 8% through Week 48. Most common AEs through Week 48 were diarrhea (27%) and nausea (23%), which were grade 1 or 2 in severity. Week 48 virologic response rates (% with VL <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml; Snapshot analysis) were 81% overall and 83% in treatment-naïve patients; median increases in CD4(+) count at 48 weeks were 167 and 169 cells/mm(3), respectively. Of 15/313 patients who met the criteria for resistance analysis, one developed a darunavir RAM as a mixture with wild-type (I84I/V), without phenotypic resistance to darunavir. The mean population pharmacokinetic-derived darunavir areas under the plasma concentration-time curve were 102,000 overall and 100,620 ng•h/ml in treatment-naïve patients. No clinically relevant relationships were seen between darunavir exposure and virologic response, AEs or laboratory parameters. Darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg once daily was generally well tolerated through Week 48, with no new safety concerns. Pharmacokinetics, virologic and immunologic responses for darunavir/cobicistat were similar to previous data for darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily.AIDS Research and Therapy 12/2014; 11:39. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-11-39 · 1.84 Impact Factor