Swedish guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults-Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases 2012
ABSTRACT This document presents the 2012 evidence based guidelines of the Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases for the in- hospital management of adult immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The prognostic score 'CRB-65' is recommended for the initial assessment of all CAP patients, and should be regarded as an aid for decision-making concerning the level of care required, microbiological investigation, and antibiotic treatment. Due to the favourable antibiotic resistance situation in Sweden, an initial narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment primarily directed at Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in most situations. The recommended treatment for patients with severe CAP (CRB-65 score 2) is penicillin G in most situations. In critically ill patients (CRB-65 score 3-4), combination therapy with cefotaxime/macrolide or penicillin G/fluoroquinolone is recommended. A thorough microbiological investigation should be undertaken in all patients, including blood cultures, respiratory tract sampling, and urine antigens, with the addition of extensive sampling for more uncommon respiratory pathogens in the case of severe disease. Recommended measures for the prevention of CAP include vaccination for influenza and pneumococci, as well as smoking cessation.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine if a noted increase in non-susceptibility to penicillin among pneumococcal clinical isolates from young children reflected a similar increase in healthy children. Methods: During 2004-2005, before the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Sweden, 663 healthy children (13-24 months of age) attending 17 child health centres in Gothenburg, Sweden, were cultured for bacteria in the nasopharynx. Social factors were identified through a parental questionnaire. Pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotic resistance rates were determined. Antibiotic resistance was also monitored in 162 simultaneously obtained nasopharyngeal pneumococci isolated from clinical samples. Results: The healthy children frequently carried pneumococci (45%), Moraxella catarrhalis (54%), and Haemophilus influenzae (22%). The carriage rates for all these pathogens were higher in children attending day care centres compared to children staying at home (p < 0.001). The dominating pneumococcal serotypes were 6B, 19F, 23F, and 6A. Non-susceptibility to penicillin was low (4.0%) and only exceeded by that to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9.8%). Both rates were higher in the clinical isolates (9.3% and 16.7%, respectively; p < 0.05). No relationships to geographic area, day care attendance, recent antibiotic use, or travel abroad were shown for any specific serotype or for the presence of penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci in the healthy children. Conclusions: Pneumococcal resistance rates in the healthy child population were low and did not reflect the higher rates noted at the laboratory in clinical samples obtained before and during the study.Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 10/2012; DOI:10.3109/00365548.2012.734919 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening infection. Innate immunity is the first line of defence, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by white blood cells and at epithelial barriers participate by killing microorganisms and neutralizing bacterial toxins. We wanted to investigate whether concentrations of AMPs (1) are increased in CAP, (2) predict the clinical outcome, and (3) differ depending on the causative microbe. Methods: Plasma concentrations of AMPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 89 patients with CAP, 21 patients with non-respiratory tract infections (non-RTI), and 63 healthy control subjects. Results: In subjects with CAP, mean plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and bactericidal/ permeability-increasing protein (BPI) were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (85 vs 45 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 48 vs 10 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively), but less markedly increased in patients with non-RTI (68 ng/ml, p = 0.06 and 41 ng/ml, p = 0.43). LL-37 and human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP 1-3) levels were not increased in subjects with CAP. Levels of BPI and SLPI did not correlate to severity of disease, and AMP levels did not differ depending on the causative agent. Interestingly, male subjects with CAP displayed increased concentrations of SLPI compared to females. This was not observed in subjects with non-RTI and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Subjects with CAP showed increased plasma concentrations of SLPI and BPI compared to healthy control subjects. The finding of higher SLPI levels in male subjects with CAP implies that there are sex-dependent immunological differences in SLPI turnover.Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2013; DOI:10.3109/00365548.2012.760844 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: The use of nasopharyngeal secretions to enhance diagnostic yields of pneumococcal aetiology in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is of interest. We evaluated the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae immunochromatographic test (ICT) on nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) in order to support pneumococcal aetiology in CAP. Methods: The NPA ICT was applied on 180 adult CAP patients and 64 healthy controls. The rate of pneumococcal detection in the nasopharynx was compared to rates for lytA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture on NPA. Results: According to blood and sputum culture and urine ICT, the test sensitivity in 59 patients with a pneumococcal aetiology was 81%. The specificity was suboptimal, with 72% negative tests among CAP patients without a pneumococcal aetiology. However, the test was positive in only 11% of patients with atypical pneumonia and in 4.7% of healthy controls. The positivity rate was higher for NPA ICT compared to culture on NPA in all CAP patients, and to both PCR and culture on NPA in non-pneumococcal non-atypical CAP patients. In 113 (63%) patients with β-lactam monotherapy, cure without treatment alteration was noted more often in cases with positive compared to negative NPA ICT at admission (91% vs 69%; p < 0.01). Conclusions: The high sensitivity and the low positivity rates in patients with atypical pneumonia and healthy controls, in combination with the correlation between positive test results and clinical cure with β-lactam therapy, may support a pneumococcal aetiology in CAP in populations with low pneumococcal carriage rates.Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2013; DOI:10.3109/00365548.2012.760843 · 1.64 Impact Factor