This document presents the 2012 evidence based guidelines of the Swedish Society of Infectious Diseases for the in- hospital management of adult immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The prognostic score 'CRB-65' is recommended for the initial assessment of all CAP patients, and should be regarded as an aid for decision-making concerning the level of care required, microbiological investigation, and antibiotic treatment. Due to the favourable antibiotic resistance situation in Sweden, an initial narrow-spectrum antibiotic treatment primarily directed at Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended in most situations. The recommended treatment for patients with severe CAP (CRB-65 score 2) is penicillin G in most situations. In critically ill patients (CRB-65 score 3-4), combination therapy with cefotaxime/macrolide or penicillin G/fluoroquinolone is recommended. A thorough microbiological investigation should be undertaken in all patients, including blood cultures, respiratory tract sampling, and urine antigens, with the addition of extensive sampling for more uncommon respiratory pathogens in the case of severe disease. Recommended measures for the prevention of CAP include vaccination for influenza and pneumococci, as well as smoking cessation.
"Indeed, it is the most common bacteria in acute sinusitis, acute otitis media and community-acquired pneumonia. In some European countries, mainly those located in Northern Europe, pneumonia is treated with penicillin V since the resistances of these pneumococci to this antibiotic are low . In the last years a phenomenon of greater community prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics has been taking place in many countries, with amoxicillin-clavulanate and amoxicillin being the antibiotics most frequently prescribed by family practitioners in Spain [2,3]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial agent which most frequently causes pneumonia. In some Scandinavian countries, this infection is treated with penicillin V since the resistances of pneumococci to this antibiotic are low. Four reasons justify the undertaking of this study; firstly, the cut-off points which determine whether a pneumococcus is susceptible or resistant to penicillin have changed in 2008 and according to some studies published recently the pneumococcal resistances to penicillin in Spain have fallen drastically, with only 0.9% of the strains being resistant to oral penicillin (minimum inhibitory concentration>2 μg/ml); secondly, there is no correlation between pneumococcal infection by a strain resistant to penicillin and therapeutic failure in pneumonia; thirdly, the use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics is urgently needed because of the dearth of new antimicrobials and the link observed between consumption of broad-spectrum antibiotics and emergence and spread of antibacterial resistance; and fourthly, no clinical study comparing amoxicillin and penicillin V in pneumonia in adults has been published. Our aim is to determine whether high-dose penicillin V is as effective as high-dose amoxicillin for the treatment of uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia.
We will perform a parallel group, randomised, double-blind, trial in primary healthcare centres in Spain. Patients aged 18 to 65 without significant associated comorbidity attending the physician with signs and symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection and radiological confirmation of the diagnosis of pneumonia will be randomly assigned to either penicillin V 1.6 million units thrice-daily during 10 days or amoxicillin 1,000 mg thrice-daily during 10 days. The main outcome will be clinical cure at 14 days, defined as absence of fever, resolution or improvement of cough, improvement of general wellbeing and resolution or reduction of crackles indicating that no other antimicrobial treatment will be necessary. Any clinical result other than the anterior will be considered as treatment failure. A total of 210 patients will be recruited to detect a non-inferiority margin of 15% between the two treatments with a minimum power of 80% considering an alpha error of 2.5% for a unilateral hypothesis and maximum possible losses of 15%.
This pragmatic trial addresses the long-standing hypothesis that the administration of high doses of a narrow-spectrum antibiotic (penicillin V) in patients with non-severe pneumonia attended in the community is not less effective than high doses of amoxicillin (treatment currently recommended) in patients under the age of 65 years.
EudraCT number 2012-003511-63.
BMC Family Practice 04/2013; 14(1):50. DOI:10.1186/1471-2296-14-50 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of mortality in children worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine if a noted increase in non-susceptibility to penicillin among pneumococcal clinical isolates from young children reflected a similar increase in healthy children.
During 2004-2005, before the conjugate pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Sweden, 663 healthy children (13-24 months of age) attending 17 child health centres in Gothenburg, Sweden, were cultured for bacteria in the nasopharynx. Social factors were identified through a parental questionnaire. Pneumococcal serotypes and antibiotic resistance rates were determined. Antibiotic resistance was also monitored in 162 simultaneously obtained nasopharyngeal pneumococci isolated from clinical samples.
The healthy children frequently carried pneumococci (45%), Moraxella catarrhalis (54%), and Haemophilus influenzae (22%). The carriage rates for all these pathogens were higher in children attending day care centres compared to children staying at home (p < 0.001). The dominating pneumococcal serotypes were 6B, 19F, 23F, and 6A. Non-susceptibility to penicillin was low (4.0%) and only exceeded by that to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (9.8%). Both rates were higher in the clinical isolates (9.3% and 16.7%, respectively; p < 0.05). No relationships to geographic area, day care attendance, recent antibiotic use, or travel abroad were shown for any specific serotype or for the presence of penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci in the healthy children.
Pneumococcal resistance rates in the healthy child population were low and did not reflect the higher rates noted at the laboratory in clinical samples obtained before and during the study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially life-threatening infection. Innate immunity is the first line of defence, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by white blood cells and at epithelial barriers participate by killing microorganisms and neutralizing bacterial toxins. We wanted to investigate whether concentrations of AMPs (1) are increased in CAP, (2) predict the clinical outcome, and (3) differ depending on the causative microbe.
Plasma concentrations of AMPs were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 89 patients with CAP, 21 patients with non-respiratory tract infections (non-RTI), and 63 healthy control subjects.
In subjects with CAP, mean plasma concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and bactericidal/ permeability-increasing protein (BPI) were significantly higher than in healthy control subjects (85 vs 45 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 48 vs 10 ng/ml, p < 0.001, respectively), but less markedly increased in patients with non-RTI (68 ng/ml, p = 0.06 and 41 ng/ml, p = 0.43). LL-37 and human neutrophil peptides 1-3 (HNP 1-3) levels were not increased in subjects with CAP. Levels of BPI and SLPI did not correlate to severity of disease, and AMP levels did not differ depending on the causative agent. Interestingly, male subjects with CAP displayed increased concentrations of SLPI compared to females. This was not observed in subjects with non-RTI and healthy control subjects.
Subjects with CAP showed increased plasma concentrations of SLPI and BPI compared to healthy control subjects. The finding of higher SLPI levels in male subjects with CAP implies that there are sex-dependent immunological differences in SLPI turnover.
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