A cytotoxic type III secretion effector of Vibrio parahaemolyticus targets vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c and ruptures host cell lysosomes.

Laboratory of Genomic Research on Pathogenic Bacteria, International Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
PLoS Pathogens (Impact Factor: 8.06). 07/2012; 8(7):e1002803. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002803
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vibrio parahaemolyticus is one of the human pathogenic vibrios. During the infection of mammalian cells, this pathogen exhibits cytotoxicity that is dependent on its type III secretion system (T3SS1). VepA, an effector protein secreted via the T3SS1, plays a major role in the T3SS1-dependent cytotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. However, the mechanism by which VepA is involved in T3SS1-dependent cytotoxicity is unknown. Here, we found that protein transfection of VepA into HeLa cells resulted in cell death, indicating that VepA alone is cytotoxic. The ectopic expression of VepA in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae interferes with yeast growth, indicating that VepA is also toxic in yeast. A yeast genome-wide screen identified the yeast gene VMA3 as essential for the growth inhibition of yeast by VepA. Although VMA3 encodes subunit c of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase), the toxicity of VepA was independent of the function of V-ATPases. In HeLa cells, knockdown of V-ATPase subunit c decreased VepA-mediated cytotoxicity. We also demonstrated that VepA interacted with V-ATPase subunit c, whereas a carboxyl-terminally truncated mutant of VepA (VepAΔC), which does not show toxicity, did not. During infection, lysosomal contents leaked into the cytosol, revealing that lysosomal membrane permeabilization occurred prior to cell lysis. In a cell-free system, VepA was sufficient to induce the release of cathepsin D from isolated lysosomes. Therefore, our data suggest that the bacterial effector VepA targets subunit c of V-ATPase and induces the rupture of host cell lysosomes and subsequent cell death.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram-negative motile bacterium that inhabits marine and estuarine environments throughout the world, is a major food-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases in humans after the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood. The global occurrence of V. parahaemolyticus accentuates the importance of investigating its virulence factors and their effects on the human host. This review describes the virulence factors of V. parahaemolyticus reported to date, including hemolysin, urease, two type III secretion systems and two type VI secretion systems, which both cause both cytotoxicity in cultured cells and enterotoxicity in animal models. We describe various types of detection methods, based on virulence factors, that are used for quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in seafood. We also discuss some useful preventive measures and therapeutic strategies for the diseases mediated by V. parahaemolyticus, which can reduce, to some extent, the damage to humans and aquatic animals attributable to V. parahaemolyticus. This review extends our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of V. parahaemolyticus mediated by virulence factors and the diseases it causes in its human host. It should provide new insights for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of V. parahaemolyticus infection.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 03/2015; 6:144. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00144 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vesicle fusion governs many important biological processes, and imbalances in the regulation of membrane fusion can lead to a variety of diseases such as diabetes and neurological disorders. Here we show that the Vibrio parahaemolyticus effector protein VopQ is a potent inhibitor of membrane fusion based on an in vitro yeast vacuole fusion model. Previously, we demonstrated that VopQ binds to the Vo domain of the conserved V-type H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) found on acidic compartments such as the yeast vacuole. VopQ forms a nonspecific, voltage-gated membrane channel of 18 Å resulting in neutralization of these compartments. We now present data showing that VopQ inhibits yeast vacuole fusion. Furthermore, we identified a unique mutation in VopQ that delineates its two functions, deacidification and inhibition of membrane fusion. The use of VopQ as a membrane fusion inhibitor in this manner now provides convincing evidence that vacuole fusion occurs independently of luminal acidification in vitro.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2014; 112(1). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1413764111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important cause of gastroenteritis resulting from the consumption of raw or undercooked shellfish. The V. parahaemolyticus genome revealed the presence of two type III secretion systems (T3SS); one on each of the two chromosomes. To date, four effectors have been identified as secreted by the chromosome 1 T3SS (T3SS1). For some effectors, efficient secretion requires a cytosolic chaperone that is often encoded in close proximity to its cognate effector. In this study, we identified VPA0451 as the specific chaperone for the T3SS1 effector, VPA0450. VPA0451 is structurally similar to known T3SS chaperones. It is required for efficient VPA0450 secretion while not affecting the secretion of other T3SS1 effectors, suggesting it is a class 1A single cargo chaperone. VPA0450 translocation into the host cell membrane requires VPA0451. VPA0451 binds directly to VPA0450 and amino acids 25-100 contribute to this activity. Taken together, we conclude that VPA0451 is the cognate chaperone for the effector VPA0450, and is the second T3SS1 chaperone identified to date. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    FEMS Microbiology Letters 03/2014; 353(2). DOI:10.1111/1574-6968.12416 · 2.72 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Available from