The aim of the study was to examine whether serum chemerin levels are associated with the presence and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD).
A total of 132 patients with CAD and 56 patients without CAD who underwent coronary angiography for the evaluation of CAD were enrolled in this study. Serum levels of chemerin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Serum chemerin levels were significantly elevated in CAD patients compared with those without CAD. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum chemerin levels were significantly associated with the presence of CAD. In CAD patients, chemerin was positively correlated with BMI (r=0.274, P=0.001) and triglycerides (r=0.190, P=0.029), and yet correlated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r=0.228, P=0.008); the association of chemerin with triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol remained significant after adjusting for BMI (P<0.05 and P<0.01). At multiple stepwise regression analysis, serum chemerin levels were an independent predictor of the stenosis score (β=0.193, P=0.034).
Our data suggest that increased chemerin levels are associated with the presence of CAD and that serum chemerin levels may reflect the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.
"A last, but of some importance, finding in this study was a correlation between foam cell chemerin in coronary lesions with acute coronary occlusion as a cause of death in our cases. As already discussed, whether high serum chemerin levels promote atherosclerosis, especially coronary artery disease, is still in debate , with growing recent data from human studies confirming this theory [15,28]. Moreover, although new research results support a possible protective role for chemerin/CMKLR1 , there is a large amount of evidence sustaining a pro-inflammatory role for chemerin [17,21,23,25]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depending on their anatomical location, different fat depots have a different capacity to produce bioactive peptides, called adipokines. Adipokines produced by periadventitial fat have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease, including atherosclerosis. Chemerin is an adipokine with an established role in immunity, adipose tissue function and metabolism, acting in autocrine, paracrine and endocrine manners. We investigated the protein expression of chemerin and its receptor, CMKLR1, in human aortas, coronary vessels and the respective periadventitial adipose tissue and correlated their expression with the presence of atherosclerosis.
Immunohistochemistry for chemerin and CMKLR1 was performed on human aortic and coronary artery samples including the periadventitial adipose tissue. Aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were assessed using the AHA classification.
Chemerin immunopositivity was noticed in both periadventitial fat depots, in vascular smooth muscle cells and foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions. Periadventitial fat and foam cell chemerin immunopositivity was statistically significantly correlated with the severity of atherosclerosis in both locations. CMKLR1 was expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells and foam cells in aortic and coronary vessels with atherosclerotic lesions. CMKLR1 immunostaining in foam cells was statistically significantly correlated with aortic atherosclerosis.
Our results lend some support to a presumable role of locally produced chemerin in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions, possibly acting through its CMKLR1 receptor. Further research will elucidate the role of chemerin signaling in atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin is an adipocyte-secreted protein with autocrine/paracrine roles on adipose development and function as well as endocrine roles in metabolism and immunity. Following prochemerin secretion, protease-mediated generation of chemerin isoforms with a range of biological activities is a key regulatory mechanism controlling local, context-specific chemerin bioactivity. Together, experimental and clinical data indicate that localized and/or circulating chemerin expression and activation are elevated in numerous metabolic and inflammatory diseases including psoriasis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. These elevations are positively correlated with deleterious changes in glucose, lipid, and cytokine homeostasis, and may serve as a link between obesity, inflammation and other metabolic disorders. This review highlights the current state of knowledge regarding chemerin expression, processing, biological function and relevance to human disease, particularly with respect to adipose tissue development, inflammation, glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it discusses study variability, deficiencies in current measurement, and questions concerning chemerin function in disease, with a special emphasis on techniques and tools used to properly assess chemerin biology. An integration of basic and clinical research is key to understanding how chemerin influences disease pathobiology, and whether modulation of chemerin levels and/or activity may serve as a potential method to prevent and treat metabolic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemerin is a recently described adipokine expressed primarily in the white adipose tissue. Compared with lean subjects, circulating chemerin levels are significantly elevated in obese individuals and correlate positively with the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors including altered lipoprotein levels. To date, the impact of chemerin on lipoprotein subfractions and its role in atherosclerotic processes are still unclear.
Fifty nondiabetic obese (NDO) patients and 38 lean controls matched in age and gender were enrolled. Chemerin level was measured by ELISA. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions were detected by nongradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Lipoprint).
We detected significantly higher serum chemerin levels in NDO patients compared with healthy controls (590·1 ± 190·3 ng/ml vs 405 ± 127·1 ng/ml, P < 0·001). A significant positive correlation was found between chemerin and LDL cholesterol levels, while chemerin showed a significant negative correlation with the level of HDL cholesterol. Significant positive correlation was detected between chemerin and the ratio of small dense LDL, while chemerin correlated negatively with the mean LDL size. Also, a significant negative correlation was found between serum chemerin and the ratio of large HDL subfraction, while there were significant positive correlations between chemerin levels and intermediate and small HDL subfraction ratios, respectively.
Chemerin may be involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism in obese patients who do not show apparent abnormalities of glucose metabolism. Early changes in the distribution of the lipoprotein subfractions may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis, leading to increased cardiovascular risk.
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