Phase IB Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Dose Escalation Study of Polyphenon E in Women with Hormone Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic data support an inverse association between green tea intake and breast cancer risk, and numerous experimental studies have shown the antitumor effects of its main component, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). We conducted a phase IB dose escalation trial in women with a history of stage I to III hormone receptor-negative breast cancer of an oral green tea extract, polyphenon E (Poly E) 400, 600, 800 twice daily or matching placebo for 6 months. The primary endpoint was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), defined as the dose that causes 25% dose-limiting toxicity (DLT, grade ≥II). Assignment to dose level was based upon an adaptive design, the continual reassessment method. A mammogram and random core biopsy of the contralateral breast were obtained at baseline and 6 months and serial blood/urine collections every 2 months for biomarker analyses. Forty women were randomized: 10 to placebo, 30 to Poly E (16 at 400 mg, 11 at 600 mg, 3 at 800 mg). There was one DLT at 400 mg (grade III rectal bleeding), three DLTs at 600 mg (grade II weight gain, grade III indigestion and insomnia), and one DLT at 800 mg (grade III liver function abnormality). The DLT rate at 600 mg was 27% (3 of 11). Pharmacologic levels of total urinary tea polyphenols were achieved with all three dose levels of Poly E. Using a novel phase I trial design, we determined the MTD for Poly E to be 600 mg twice daily. This study highlights the importance of assessing toxicity for any chemopreventive agent being developed for chronic use in healthy individuals. Cancer Prev Res; 5(9); 1144-54. ©2012 AACR.
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ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen is approved for the reduction of breast cancer risk, and raloxifene has demonstrated a reduced risk of breast cancer in trials of older women with osteoporosis. To compare the relative effects and safety of raloxifene and tamoxifen on the risk of developing invasive breast cancer and other disease outcomes. The National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene trial, a prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted beginning July 1, 1999, in nearly 200 clinical centers throughout North America, with final analysis initiated after at least 327 incident invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Patients were 19,747 postmenopausal women of mean age 58.5 years with increased 5-year breast cancer risk (mean risk, 4.03% [SD, 2.17%]). Data reported are based on a cutoff date of December 31, 2005. Oral tamoxifen (20 mg/d) or raloxifene (60 mg/d) over 5 years. Incidence of invasive breast cancer, uterine cancer, noninvasive breast cancer, bone fractures, thromboembolic events. There were 163 cases of invasive breast cancer in women assigned to tamoxifen and 168 in those assigned to raloxifene (incidence, 4.30 per 1000 vs 4.41 per 1000; risk ratio [RR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.28). There were fewer cases of noninvasive breast cancer in the tamoxifen group (57 cases) than in the raloxifene group (80 cases) (incidence, 1.51 vs 2.11 per 1000; RR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.98-2.00). There were 36 cases of uterine cancer with tamoxifen and 23 with raloxifene (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.35-1.08). No differences were found for other invasive cancer sites, for ischemic heart disease events, or for stroke. Thromboembolic events occurred less often in the raloxifene group (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54-0.91). The number of osteoporotic fractures in the groups was similar. There were fewer cataracts (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68-0.92) and cataract surgeries (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99) in the women taking raloxifene. There was no difference in the total number of deaths (101 vs 96 for tamoxifen vs raloxifene) or in causes of death. Raloxifene is as effective as tamoxifen in reducing the risk of invasive breast cancer and has a lower risk of thromboembolic events and cataracts but a nonstatistically significant higher risk of noninvasive breast cancer. The risk of other cancers, fractures, ischemic heart disease, and stroke is similar for both drugs. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00003906.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 07/2006; 295(23):2727-41. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. In a case-control study conducted among Asian-American women in Los Angeles County, we reported a significant inverse relationship between intake of green tea and risk of breast cancer (A. H. Wu et al., Int. J. Cancer, 106: 574-579, 2003). Because catechol-containing tea polyphenols are very rapidly O-methylated by human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), we are interested in determining whether the association between tea intake and breast cancer differed in women according to COMT genotype. We examined the interrelationships between tea intake, COMT genotype, and breast cancer risk in 589 incident cases and 563 population-based controls from a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in Chinese-, Japanese-, and Filipino-American women in Los Angeles County. Risk of breast cancer was influenced significantly by intake of tea, particularly green tea intake. However, the inverse association between tea intake and breast cancer risk was observed only among individuals who possessed at least one low-activity COMT allele. Among women who carried at least one low activity COMT allele, tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.77) compared with nontea drinkers after adjustment for relevant demographic, menstrual, reproductive, and dietary factors. This risk reduction was observed in relation to both green tea and black tea intake. In contrast, risk of breast cancer did not differ between tea drinkers and nontea drinkers among those who were homozygous for the high activity COMT allele (adjusted odds ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.60). In conclusion, tea catechins appeared to reduce breast cancer risk in this study of Asian-American women. Reduction in risk was strongest among persons who had the low activity COMT alleles, suggesting these individuals were less efficient in eliminating tea catechins and may derive the most benefit from these compounds.Cancer Research 12/2003; 63(21):7526-9. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tamoxifen and raloxifene have limited patient acceptance for primary prevention of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors prevent more contralateral breast cancers and cause fewer side effects than tamoxifen in patients with early-stage breast cancer. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of exemestane designed to detect a 65% relative reduction in invasive breast cancer, eligible postmenopausal women 35 years of age or older had at least one of the following risk factors: 60 years of age or older; Gail 5-year risk score greater than 1.66% (chances in 100 of invasive breast cancer developing within 5 years); prior atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia or lobular carcinoma in situ; or ductal carcinoma in situ with mastectomy. Toxic effects and health-related and menopause-specific qualities of life were measured. A total of 4560 women for whom the median age was 62.5 years and the median Gail risk score was 2.3% were randomly assigned to either exemestane or placebo. At a median follow-up of 35 months, 11 invasive breast cancers were detected in those given exemestane and in 32 of those given placebo, with a 65% relative reduction in the annual incidence of invasive breast cancer (0.19% vs. 0.55%; hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.70; P=0.002). The annual incidence of invasive plus noninvasive (ductal carcinoma in situ) breast cancers was 0.35% on exemestane and 0.77% on placebo (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.79; P=0.004). Adverse events occurred in 88% of the exemestane group and 85% of the placebo group (P=0.003), with no significant differences between the two groups in terms of skeletal fractures, cardiovascular events, other cancers, or treatment-related deaths. Minimal quality-of-life differences were observed. Exemestane significantly reduced invasive breast cancers in postmenopausal women who were at moderately increased risk for breast cancer. During a median follow-up period of 3 years, exemestane was associated with no serious toxic effects and only minimal changes in health-related quality of life. (Funded by Pfizer and others; NCIC CTG MAP.3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00083174.).New England Journal of Medicine 06/2011; 364(25):2381-91. · 51.66 Impact Factor