New insights into an old story: Pollen ROS also play a role in hay fever.
ABSTRACT Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can exhibit negative and benign traits. In plants, ROS levels increase markedly during periods of environmental stress, and defense against pathogen attack. ROS form naturally as a by-product of normal oxygen metabolism, and evenly play an essential role in cell growth. The short ROS lifespan makes them ideal molecules to act in cell signaling, a role they share in both plants and animals. A particular plant organism, the pollen grain, may closely interact with human mucosa and an allergic inflammatory response often results. Pollen grain ROS represent a first, crucial signal which primes and magnifies a cascade of events in the allergic response.
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ABSTRACT: Sulfur dioxide is 1 of 6 environmental pollutants monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency. Its ability to induce bronchoconstriction is well documented. It is highly soluble, initially forming sulfite ions in solution. Sulfur oxides are important constituents of other pollutants, such as diesel exhaust and fine particulates. To investigate the cellular responses of sulfite on cultured mast cells (rat basophilic leukemia [RBL-2H3] cells) and human peripheral blood basophils. Sulfite-induced mast cell degranulation and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species were evaluated in the presence and absence of antioxidants and inhibitors of redox metabolism. Degranulation was determined using beta-hexosaminidase, serotonin, and histamine release assays. Induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species generation was determined using the redox-sensitive dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Sodium sulfite induced degranulation and the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in RBL-2H3 cells. These responses were inhibited by the free radical scavenger tetramethylthiourea and the flavoenzyme inhibitor diphenyliodinium but not by depletion of extracellular calcium. Peripheral blood basophils also showed histamine release after exposure to sodium sulfite Sulfite, the aqueous ion of sulfur dioxide, induces cellular activation, leading to degranulation in mast cells through a non-IgE-dependent pathway. The response also differs from IgE-mediated degranulation in that it is insensitive to the influx of extracellular calcium. The putative pathway seems to rely on activation of the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase complex, leading to intracellular oxidative stress.Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 05/2006; 96(4):550-6. · 2.83 Impact Factor
Article: Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 05/2011; 159(10):2823-30. · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In mammalian cells, eicosanoid biosynthesis is usually initiated by the activation of phospholipase A2 and the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids. The AA is subsequently transformed by cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LO) pathways to prostaglandins, thromboxane and leukotrienes collectively termed eicosanoids. Eicosanoid production is considerably increased during inflammation. Both COX and LO pathways are of particular clinical relevance. The COX pathway is the major target for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the most popular medications used to treat pain, fever and inflammation. Although their anti-inflammatory effects are well known, their long-term use is associated with gastrointestinal (GI) complications such as ulceration. In 1991, it was discovered that COX exists in two distinct isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, of which COX-2 is primarily expressed at sites of inflammation and produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. For this reason, COX-2 selective inhibitors (COXIBs) have been developed recently as anti-inflammatory agents to minimize the risk of GI toxicity. Recently, some COX-2 selective inhibitors have shown adverse cardiovascular side effects, resulting in the withdrawal of rofecoxib and valdecoxib from the market. Selective inhibition of COX-2 without reducing COX-1-mediated thromboxane production could alter the balance between prostacyclin and thromboxane and promote a prothrombotic state, thereby explaining the observed COX-2 cardiovascular risk. In this review, we describe mechanisms for the production of pro-inflammatory eicosanoid mediators contributing to inflammation and summarize promising options for the prevention of inflammatory mediator formation and the therapeutic inhibition of pain and inflammation.Current topics in medicinal chemistry 02/2007; 7(3):311-40. · 4.47 Impact Factor