Article

Interacting epidemics? Sleep curtailment, insulin resistance, and obesity

Immunogenetics Section, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.31). 07/2012; 1264(1):110-34. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06655.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In the last 50 years, the average self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by 1.5-2 hours in parallel with an increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes. Epidemiological studies and meta-analyses report a strong relationship between short or disturbed sleep, obesity, and abnormalities in glucose metabolism. This relationship is likely to be bidirectional and causal in nature, but many aspects remain to be elucidated. Sleep and the internal circadian clock influence a host of endocrine parameters. Sleep curtailment in humans alters multiple metabolic pathways, leading to more insulin resistance, possibly decreased energy expenditure, increased appetite, and immunological changes. On the other hand, psychological, endocrine, and anatomical abnormalities in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes can interfere with sleep duration and quality, thus creating a vicious cycle. In this review, we address mechanisms linking sleep with metabolism, highlight the need for studies conducted in real-life settings, and explore therapeutic interventions to improve sleep, with a potential beneficial effect on obesity and its comorbidities.

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Available from: Eliane A Lucassen, Jul 25, 2015
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    • "Four found an association between both short and long sleep duration and weight gain, supporting a U-shaped association (Chaput et al., 2008; Hairston et al., 2010; Lopez- Garcia et al., 2008; Watanabe et al., 2010); four found an association between short sleep duration (but not long sleep) and later weight gain (Gunderson et al., 2008; Hasler et al., 2004; Nishiura & Hashimoto , 2010; Patel et al., 2006); fi ve found no signifi cant associations between sleep duration and subsequent weight gain (Gangwisch et al., 2005; Lauderdale et al., 2009; Littman et al., 2007; Marshall et al., 2010; Stranges et al., 2008). Another review similarly concluded that most, but not all, longitudinal studies fi nd short sleepers to experience greater increases in weight over time; however, average reported weight gains tend to be modest, and there is substantial variability among studies (Lucassen et al., 2012). For example, in the largest longitudinal study to date examining sleep duration in relation to later weight gain (N ϭ 68,183), the Nurses ' Health Study, women free of co-morbid disease who slept 6 h and those sleeping Յ 5 h were 12% and 32% more likely to have a 15 kg weight gain over 16 years compared to those sleeping 7 h, respectively (Patel et al., 2006). "
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