WOX2 and STIMPY-LIKE/WOX8 promote cotyledon boundary formation in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT One of the key events in dicot plant embryogenesis is the emergence of the two cotyledon primordia, which marks the transition from radial symmetry to bilateral symmetry. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON (CUC) genes are responsible for determining the boundary region between the cotyledons. However, the mechanisms controlling their transcription activation are not well understood. Previous studies found that several WOX family homeobox transcription factors are involved in embryo apical patterning and cotyledon development. Here we show that WOX2 and STIMPY-LIKE (STPL/WOX8) act redundantly to differentially regulate the expression of the CUC genes in promoting the establishment of the cotyledon boundary, without affecting the primary shoot meristem. Loss of both WOX2 and STPL results in reduced CUC2 and CUC3 expression in one side of the embryo, but an expansion of the CUC1 domain. Furthermore, we found that STPL is expressed in the embryo proper, and its activation is enhanced by the removal of WOX2, providing an explanation for the functional redundancy between WOX2 and STPL. Additional evidence also showed that WOX2 and STPL function independently in regulating different aspects of local auxin gradient formation during early embryogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: A key feature of the development of a higher plant is the continuous formation of new organs from the meristems. Originally patterned during embryogenesis, the meristems must activate cell division de novo at the time of germination, in order to initiate post-embryonic development. In a mutagenesis screen aimed at finding new players in early seedling cell division control, we identified ELONGATA3 (ELO3) as a key regulator of meristem cell cycle activation in Arabidopsis. Our results show that plants carrying a hypomorphic allele of ELO3 fail to activate cell division in the meristems following germination, which leads to seedling growth arrest and lethality. Further analyses suggest that this is due to a failure in DNA replication, followed by cell cycle arrest, in the meristematic tissue. Interestingly, the meristem cell cycle arrest in elo3 mutants, but not the later leaf developmental defects that have been linked to the loss of ELO3 activities, can be relieved by the addition of metabolic sugars in the growth medium. This finding points to a new role by which carbohydrate availability promotes meristem growth. Furthermore, growth arrested elo3 mutants suffer a partial loss of shoot meristem identity, which provides further evidence that cell cycle activities can influence the control of tissue identity.Developmental Biology 08/2013; · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) gene family plays an important role in coordinating gene transcription in the early phases of embryogenesis. In this study, we isolated and characterized WOX5 from common wheat and its relatives Triticum monococcum, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, Ae. searsii, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. longissima, Ae. bicornis, Ae. tauschii, and T. turgidum. The size of the characterized WOX5 alleles ranged from 1029 to 1038bp and encompassed the complete open reading frame (ORF) as well as 5' upstream and 3' downstream sequences. Domain prediction analysis showed that the putative primary structures of wheat WOX5 protein include the highly conserved homeodomain besides the WUS-box domain and the EAR-like domain, which is/are present in some members of the WOX protein family. The full-length ORF was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector pET-30a, and an approximate 26-kDa protein was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells with IPTG induction. The WOX5 genes from wheat-related species exhibit a similar structure to and high sequence similarity with WOX5 genes from common wheat. The degree of divergence and phylogenetic tree analysis among WOX5 alleles suggested the existence of three homoeologous in the A, B, or D genome of common wheat. Quantitative PCR results showed that TaWOX5 was primarily expressed in the root and calli induced by auxin and cytokinin, indicating that TaWOX5 may play a role related to root formation or development and is associated with hormone regulation in somatic embryogenesis.Gene 12/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor